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Since their inception, the mutual programs of the 1940s were created as secondary to individual private homeownership, which has persisted as the dominant model in the decades since. While mutual or cooperative housing has taken various forms, the term typically denotes a buyer purchasing a share in a not-for-profit mutual association where the association (made up of the residents) owns and controls the houses and land.
By the turn of the twentieth century, American visual culture had cleaved two distinct paths for white and black children. Images found in advertising, literature, and social science journals painted a delinquent, diseased, and dehumanized portrait of black childhood. Those visuals stood in marked contrast to angelic profiles of white children. Such a divide held profound consequence, both ideological and practical, in the post-emancipation era—helping to define the boundaries of childhood innocence; the terms of full citizenship; and, among other concerns, the bodily integrity of black Americans.
A History of Foster Care, Adoption, and Child Removal in African American Communities
Between April and June 2018, under U.S. President Donald Trump’s “zero tolerance” immigration policy, more than 2,300 children were separated from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border. Bi-partisan resistance and public outcry was strong and immediate. As historians and those aware of adoption history well know, the separation and removal of children from their families and networks of kin have incredibly deep, racialized, and problematic roots in U.S. history….