Since their inception, the mutual programs of the 1940s were created as secondary to individual private homeownership, which has persisted as the dominant model in the decades since. While mutual or cooperative housing has taken various forms, the term typically denotes a buyer purchasing a share in a not-for-profit mutual association where the association (made up of the residents) owns and controls the houses and land.
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A History of Foster Care, Adoption, and Child Removal in African American Communities
Between April and June 2018, under U.S. President Donald Trump’s “zero tolerance” immigration policy, more than 2,300 children were separated from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border. Bi-partisan resistance and public outcry was strong and immediate. As historians and those aware of adoption history well know, the separation and removal of children from their families and networks of kin have incredibly deep, racialized, and problematic roots in U.S. history….
Policymakers and societal norms interpret the presence of animals in the home and on the street differently for groups along the axes of class and race, even when the motivations for pet keeping are the same. The wide variety of decisions and experiences surrounding pet ownership in the black community reflect the many ways that they have negotiated with belonging and citizenship, negotiating with animals as family members, tools of white supremacy, and markers of respectability.