Since their inception, the mutual programs of the 1940s were created as secondary to individual private homeownership, which has persisted as the dominant model in the decades since. While mutual or cooperative housing has taken various forms, the term typically denotes a buyer purchasing a share in a not-for-profit mutual association where the association (made up of the residents) owns and controls the houses and land.
20th CenturyCivil Rights
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On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown led an interracial group of men on a raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown hoped to arm slaves and instigate a slave rebellion. The mission failed, and Brown became a villain in the South, but his trial and execution for treason made him a martyr in the North and inspired one of the United States’ most enduring national hymns.
Policymakers and societal norms interpret the presence of animals in the home and on the street differently for groups along the axes of class and race, even when the motivations for pet keeping are the same. The wide variety of decisions and experiences surrounding pet ownership in the black community reflect the many ways that they have negotiated with belonging and citizenship, negotiating with animals as family members, tools of white supremacy, and markers of respectability.