Jane Fonda and the Free The Army performances offered alternative messaging to the USO performances for the US Army during the Vietnam War Era.

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The Battle Hymn of the Republic Sheet Music

On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown led an interracial group of men on a raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown hoped to arm slaves and instigate a slave rebellion. The mission failed, and Brown became a villain in the South, but his trial and execution for treason made him a martyr in the North and inspired one of the United States’ most enduring national hymns.

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Policymakers and societal norms interpret the presence of animals in the home and on the street differently for groups along the axes of class and race, even when the motivations for pet keeping are the same. The wide variety of decisions and experiences surrounding pet ownership in the black community reflect the many ways that they have negotiated with belonging and citizenship, negotiating with animals as family members, tools of white supremacy, and markers of respectability.

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What made the Rosenwald Fund’s efforts so effective was that it tapped into what historian James D. Anderson calls the strong “self-help tradition” in black southern communities and the high value that black southerners placed on education.

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