This article examines the values and policies that have shaped these stereotypes and critiques of public housing in the United States since its beginning in the 1930s. American public housing never fully succeeding is a matter of how we chose to implement it, not a problem inherent to the concept itself.

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A History of Foster Care, Adoption, and Child Removal in African American Communities

Between April and June 2018, under U.S. President Donald Trump’s “zero tolerance” immigration policy, more than 2,300 children were separated from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border. Bi-partisan resistance and public outcry was strong and immediate. As historians and those aware of adoption history well know, the separation and removal of children from their families and networks of kin have incredibly deep, racialized, and problematic roots in U.S. history….

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