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  1. Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. (New York: New Press, 1995), 79.
  2. Reynolds, David. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 4.
  3. Garrison, William Lloyd. The Liberator. October 21, 1859
  4. Reynolds, David. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 109
  5. Blight, David. Race and Reunion (United Kingdom: Harvard University Press, 2009). 69.
  6. Garrison, William Lloyd. The Liberator. December 16, 1859
  7. Blight, David. ” The Election of 1860 and the Secession Crisis” Presentation at Yale College, New Haven. http://openmedia.yale.edu/projects/iphone/departments/hist/hist119/transcript10.html
  8. Anderson, Osborne Perry. A Voice from Harper’s Ferry: A Narrative of Events at Harper’s Ferry: with Incidents Prior and Subsequent to Its Capture by Captain Brown and His Men. (United States: 1861), 60.
  9. Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. John Brown. (United States: G. W. Jacobs, 1909), 19.
  10. Reynolds, David. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 498
  11. Middlebrook, J.A. Organizing a Rainbow Coalition of Revolutionary Solidarity. J Afr Am St 23, 405–434 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-019-09454-6
  12. Department of Appreciations. “John Brown, History’s Greatest Hero” in Debs: His Life, Writing, and Speeches, 371-372. Chicago: Press of John F. Higgins, 1909. http://moses.law.umn.edu/darrow/documents/Debs_his%20life%20writings%20and%20speeches_With%20a%20department%20of%20appreciations_1910.pdf
  13. Kennedy, David M. author. The American Pageant: a History of the American People. (Boston: Cengage Learning, 2016), 413, 420.
  14. Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. John Brown. (United States: G. W. Jacobs, 1909), 39, 43.
  15. Kennedy, David M. author. The American Pageant: a History of the American People. (Boston: Cengage Learning, 2016), 413. The “hacking” claim is particularly prevalent, showing up in academic works, public media, and textbooks.
  16. Robinson, Sara Tappan Lawrence. Kansas; Its Interior and Exterior Life: Including a Full View of Its Settlement, Political History, Social Life, Climate, Soil, Productions, Scenery, Etc. (United States: Journal Publishing Company, 1899), 409
  17. Ibid, 168.
  18. Wilentz, Sean. The Politicians & the Egalitarians: The Hidden History of American Politics. (London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2016); Brands, H. W. The Zealot and the Emancipator: John Brown, Abraham Lincoln, and the Struggle for American Freedom. (United States: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2020)
  19. Reynolds, David. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 54
  20. Ibid, 332.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Zahra Hasanain is a 4th year student at UC Berkeley majoring in History with a focus on 19th century U.S. history. In her spare time, she enjoys browsing Wikipedia and baking.