Nineteenth Century Historiography

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The Frontier

  • Richard W. Etulain, ed., Does the frontier experience make America exceptional? (1999)
  • John Mack Faragher, “The Frontier Trail: Rethinking Turner and Reimagining the American West,” American Historical Review 98 (1993): 106-117
  • Slotkin, Richard, The Fatal Environment:  The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800-1890.  New York:  Atheneum, 1985.
  • ________. Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860.  University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.
  • Gregory H. Nobles, American Frontiers: cultural encounters and continental conquest (1997)
  • William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier, 1820-1920 (1991)
  • Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, empires, and republics in the Great Lakes region, 1650-1815 (1991)
  • Claudio Saunt, A New Order of Things: Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733-1816(New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1999)
  • Gregory A. Waselkov, A Conquering Spirit: Fort Mims and the Redstick War of 1813-1814 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2009)
  • W. Cronon, “Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner, Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp. 157-176
  • David M. Wrobel, “Beyond the Frontier-Region Dichotomy,” Pacific Historical Review65 (1996), 401-29
  • Kerwin Lee Klein, “Reclaiming the ‘F’ Word, or Becoming Postwestern,” Pacific Historical Review 65 (1996), 179-215
  • Clyde A. Milner II, ed., A New Significance: Re-envisioning the History of the American West(Oxford University Press, 1996)
  • Daniel Herman, “Romance on the Middle Ground,” Journal of the Early Republic19 (1999), 279-91
  • Virginia Scharff et. al., “Claims and Prospects of Western History: A Roundtable,” Western Historical Quarterly31 (2000), 25-46
  • “Forum: The Middle Ground Revisited,” William and Mary Quarterly63 (1) 2006
  • Michael Adas, “From Settler Colony to Global Hegemon: Integrating the Exceptionalist Narrative of the American Experience into World History,” American Historical Review106 (2001), 1692-1720
  • Brian Balogh, “The State of the State among Historians,” Social Science History27 (2003), 455-63

Primary Sources

  • Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893)

Imperial Ambitions

  • Bernard W. Sheehan, “Jefferson’s ‘Empire for Liberty,’” Indiana Magazine of History 100 (2004), 346-363
  • James P. Ronda, “Counting Cats in Zanzibar, or, Lewis and Clark Reconsidered,” Western Historical Quarterly33 (2002), 5-18
  • Deborah Allen, “Acquiring ‘Knowledge of Our Own Continent’:  Geopolitics, Science, and Jeffersonian Geography, 1783-1803,” Journal of American Studies40 (2006), 205-32
  • Frederick E. Hoxie, “The Story from Indian Country:  What We Learned from the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial,”Montana: The Magazine of Western History56 (2006), 38-46

Primary Sources

  • The Louisiana Purchase,
  • Bernard W. Sheehan, “Jefferson’s ‘Empire for Liberty,’”Indiana Magazine of History100 (2004), 346-363
  • Lewis and Clark, read “Overviews: Synopsis” and browse “Journal Excerpts”

Native American History and Relations

  • James Merrell, The Indians’ New World Catawbas and Their Neighbors From European Contact Through the Era of Removal.
  • Hämäläinen, Pekka, The Comanche Empire
  • Deloria, Phillip J., Indians in Unexpected Places (2004)
  • ________. Playing Indian (1998)
  • Wishart, David J, An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians(1994)
  • Colin G. Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997)
  • Aaron, Stephen, How the West Was Lost(1996)
  • Steven Conn, History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century(2004)
  • Rogin, Michael P., Fathers and Children:  Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.
  • Frederick Hoxie, Parading through History: The Making of the Crow Nation in America 1805-1935(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • Tiya Miles, Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
  • Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee(New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
  • Tsianina Lomawaima, They Called it Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994).
  • Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West, 1846-1890
  • Robert M. Utley, The Last Days of the Sioux Nation
  • Richard White, The Roots of Dependency
  • William McLoughlin, After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees Struggle for Sovereignty
  • Peter Iverson, The Navajo Nation
  • Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
  • Vine DeLoria, Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto

Early Republic

  • Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001)
  • Ned Blackhawk, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006)
  • Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815(1992)
  • Jay Gitlin, “Private Diplomacy to Private Property: States, Tribes, and Nations in the Early National Period,” Diplomatic History22 (1998), 85-99.
  • Frederick E. Hoxie, “Retrieving the Red Continent: Settler Colonialism and the History of American Indians in the U.S.,” Ethnic and Racial Studies31 (2008). 1153-67

Gender and Sexuality

  • Theda Perdue, Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, 1700-1835(1998)
  • Walter Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture(Boston: Beacon Press, 1988)
  • Gretchen M. Batille and Kathleen Sands, eds., American Indian Women: Telling Their Lives
  • Katherine Ellinghaus,Taking Assimilation to Heart:Marriages of White Women and Indigenous Men in the United States and Australia, 1887-1937 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006)


  • James Axtell, “Colonial America without the Indians: Counterfactual Reflections,” Journal of American History73 (1987), pp. 981-96.
  • ________. “The Ethnohistory of Native America,” in Donald L. Fixico, ed., Rethinking American Indian History(Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997), pp. 11-27.
  • Richard White, “Using the Past: History and Native American Studies,” in Russell Thornton, ed., Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), pp. 217-43.
  • Peter Iverson, “Native Peoples and Native Histories,” in Milner et al., Oxford History of the American West(1994), 13-43
  • Ned Blackhawk, “Look How Far We’ve Come: How American Indian History Changed the Study of American History in the 1990s,” OAH Magazine of History 19 (2005), 13-17.

Primary Sources

  • Theda Purdue and Michael D. Green, The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd(St. Martin’s Press, 2004)
  • Nabokov, Peter, and Vine Deloria, Jr., Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492-2000. Penguin Books, rev. ed., 1999.


  • C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1780‐1914(Blackwell, 2004)
  • Thomas Bender, A Nation among Nations: America’s Place in World History(Hill and Wang, 2006)
  • Ian Tyrrell, Transnational Nation: United States History in Global Perspective since 1789(Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
  • Madeline Yuan-yin Hsu, Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration Between the United States and South China, 1882-1943(Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000).

The Atlantic Slave Trade and the African Diaspora

  • Sidney Mintz, Sweetness and Power
  • Judith Ann Carney, Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas.Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Gomez, Michael Angelo, Exchanging Our Country Marks:  The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South.  Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
  • Tiffany Patterson and Robin D.G. Kelley, “Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,” African Studies Review(April, 2000).
  • Thornton, John K. “African Dimensions of the Stono Rebellion,”The American Historical Review, Volume 96, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 1101-1113.

Transnational Theory

  • Thomas Bender, ed., Rethinking American History in a Global Age (California, 2002), chapters by Bender, Bright and Geyer (below), Walter Johnson, Wiebe, and Hollinger.
  • Charles Bright and Michael Geyer, “Where in the World Is America?” in Thomas Bender, ed., Rethinking American History in a Global Age(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 63-100.
  • Ian Tyrrell, “American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History,” AHR 96, no. 4 (October 1991), 1031‐55.
  • Michael McGerr, “The Price of the ‘New Transnational History,’”AHR 96, no. 4 (October 1991), 1056‐1067.
  • Ian Tyrrell, “Ian Tyrrell Responds,” AHR 96, no. 4 (October 1991), 1068‐72.
  • David Thelen, “Making History and Making the United States,” Journal of American Studies (Spring 2001), 1‐19.
  • Louis A. Perez, Jr., “We are the World: Internationalizing the National, Nationalizing the International,” JAH 89, no. 2 (September 2002)

The Early Republic

Background and Legacies of the Revolution

  • Rodgers, Daniel T., “Republicanism: The Career of a Concept,” Journal of American History79 (June 1992): 11-38.
  • Shalhope, Robert E., “Toward A Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography,” William and Mary Quarterly 29 (January 1972): 49-80.
  • Appleby, Joyce, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (2000)
  • ________., “Republicanism and Ideology,” American Quarterly 37 (Autumn 1985): 461-73.
  • Kerber, Linda, “Republican Ideology of the Revolutionary Generation”
  • Eric Slauter, The State as a Work of Art: The Cultural Origins of the Constitution(Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2008)
  • Young, Alfred F. and Nobles, Gregory H., Whose American Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding (New York: New York University Press, 2011)
  • Countryman, Edward, “Indians, the Colonial Order, and the Social Significance of the American Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly53, no. 2 (April 1996): 342-362
  • Egnal, Marc, Divergent Paths: How Culture and Institutions have Shaped North American Growth (1996)
  • Hoffman, Ronald and Albert, Peter J., ed., The Transforming Hand of Revolution: Reconsidering the American Revolution as a Social Movement(1996)
  • Nash, Gary B., The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America(2005)
  • Wood, Gordon S., The Radicalism of the American Revolution(1992)
  • ________., Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969)
  • ________., “The Significance of the Early Republic,” Journal of the Early Republic8 (Spring 1988).
  • Rakove, Jack N., Original Meanings(1996)
  • Young, Alfred F., ed., Beyond the American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism(1993)
  • Young, Alfred F., The Shoemaker and the Tea Party: Memory and the American Revolution(1999)
  • Bercovitch, Sacvan, The American Jeremiad(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978)

Politics and Law

  • Kettner, James H., The Development of American Citizenship, 1608-1870 Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., (University of North Carolina Press, 1978)
  • Young, James Sterling, The Washington Community:  1800-1828. New York, Columbia University Press, 1966.
  • Hofstadter, Richard, The Idea of a Party System:  The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840. Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1969.
  • Horwitz, Morton, Transformation of American Law, 1780-1860.  Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.
  • Freeman, Joanne, Affairs of Honor:  National Politics in the New Republic.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2001.


  • Pasley, Jeffrey. “The Tyranny of Printers”:  Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic. Charlottesville:  University Press of Virginia, 2001.
  • Tebbel, John William, A History of Book Publishing in theUnited States, Vols. 1-4 (New York: R. R. Bowker)
  • Haulman, Kate, The Politics of Fashion in Eighteenth-Century America(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011)


  • Ulrich, Laurel, A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812. New York: Knopf, 1990.
  • Kerber, Linda K.,Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America(Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1997)
  • Norton, Mary Beth, Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800(Boston: Little and Brown, 1980)
  • Jeanne, Boydston, Home and World: Housework, Wages, and the Ideology of Labor in the Early Republic(1990).
  • Catherine, Allgor, Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build A City and A Government.  Charlottesville:  University Press of Virginia, 2000.
  • Zagarri, Rosemarie, “Women and Party Conflict in the Early Republic,” in Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds., Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004)
  • Lewis, Jan, “The Republican Wife: Virtue and Seduction in the Early Republic,” William and Mary Quarterly 44 (October 1987): 689-721.

Gender Theory

  • Scott, Joan W., “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis.”American Historical Review91 (1986), 1053-75.
  • Scott, Joan W. “Experience.”  InFeminists Theorize the Political.  Eds. Judith Butler and Joan W. Scott.  New York: Routledge, 1992. Pp. 22-40.
  • Downs, Laura Lee. “If ‘woman’ is just an empty category, then why am I afraid to walk alone at night? Identity politics meets the postmodern subject.” to Scott, Joan W., article on “Experience.”  In Comparative Studies in Society and History35, no. 2 (Apr 1993):  414.
  • Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, “African American Women’s History and the Metalanguage of Race,” Signs17:2 (Wint 92), 251-74.
  • Butler, Judith, Ch. 1, “Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of ‘Postmodernism.’”InFeminists Theorize the Political.  Eds. Judith Butler and Joan W. Scott.  New York: Routledge, 1992. Pp. 3-21.
  • Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.New York:
  • Routledge, 1999.

Warfare and Revolution

  • Ashli White, Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010. 280 pp., $25.
  • Alan Taylor, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, and Indian Allies (New York: Knopf, 2010)

Urban and Public Spaces in the Early Republic

  • Blackmar, Elizabeth, Manhattan for Rent, 1785-1850Cornell University Press; (1991)
  • Kamensky, Jane. The Exchange Artist. New York: Viking, 2008.
  • Lyons, Clare, Sex among the Rabble: An Intimate History of Gender and Power in the Age of Revolution, Philadelphia, 1730-1830(2006)
  • Waldstreicher, D., In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes(UNC) 0807846910
  • Eastman, Carolyn, A Nation of Speechifiers: Making an American Public After theRevolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009)
  • Shammas, Carole, “The Space Problem in Early United States Cities,”William and Mary Quarterly 57, no. 3 (July 2000): 505-542


  • Casper, Scott E., Sarah Johnson’s Mount Vernon: The Forgotten History of an American Shrine. New York: Hill & Wang, 2008.


  • Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989.


  • Bruce, Dorsey, Reforming Men and Women: Gender in the Antebellum City(Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 2006)
  • Hatch, Nathan, The Democratization of American Christianity
  • ________. , “The Second Great Awakening and the Market Revolution,” in David T. Konig, ed.,Devising Liberty: Preserving and Creating Freedom in the New American Republic (1995), pp. 243-264.
  • Butler, John, Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990),
  • Abzug, Robert H., Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)
  • Cross, Whitney R., The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006)
  • Gura, Philip, American Transcendentalism:A History(New York: Macmillan, 2007)
  • McLoughlin, William.  Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform:  An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607-1977.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1978.
  • The Market Revolution in America:  Social, Political, and Religious Expressions, 1800-1880.  Edited by Melvyn Stokes and Stephen Conway.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996. [relevant essays]
  • McGreevy, John.  Catholicism and American Freedom:  A History.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 2003.
  • Obenzinger, Hilton, American Palestine: Melville, Twain, and the Holy Land Mania(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999)
  • Vogel, Lester I., To See A Promised Land: Americans and the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century(University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993)
  • Long, Burke O., Imagining the Holy Land: Maps, Models, and Fantasy Travels(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003)


  • Ginzberg, Lori, Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics, and Class in the Nineteenth Century United States(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992)
  • Braude, Ann, Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

Revivalist Religious Studies

  • McLoughlin, William, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform
  • Cross, Whitney, The Burned-Over District
  • Mathews, Donald G., “The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process, 1780-1830,” American Quarterly21(Spring 1969), 23-43.
  • Cott, Nancy, The Bonds of Womanhood “Woman’s Sphere” in New England, 1780-1835. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997)
  • Lazerow, Jama.Religion and the Working Class in Antebellum America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995
  • Johnson, Paul E. and Wilentz, Sean, The Kingdom of Matthias(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)
  • Dickson Bruce, And they all sang hallelujah; plain-folk camp-meeting religion, 1800-1845. Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press, [1974]

Western Religion

  • Shipps, Jan, Mormonism: The Story of a New Religious Tradition
  • Gordon, Sarah B., The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth-Century America(2002)
  • Hackel, Steven, Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769-1850(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005).
  • Sandos, James, Converting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions(New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004).

The Market Revolution and Class Culture

  • Charles Sellers, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815‐1846 (New York: Oxford, 1991)
  • Daniel Feller, “The Market Revolution Ate My Homework,” Reviews in American History 25.3 (1997), 408‐415.
  • ________. The Jacksonian Promise: America, 1815-1840 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995)
  • Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815‐1848 (New York: Oxford, 2007)
  • ________. “The Market Revolution and the Shaping of Identity in Whig-Jacksonian America,” in Market Revolution. Also: H‐SHEAR Forumon Howe’s What Hath God Wrought <>
  • David S. Reynolds, Walt Whitman’s America: A Cultural Biography(New York: Knopf, 1995)
  • David S. Reynolds, Waking Giant: America in the Age of Jackson (New York: HarperCollins 2008) [And New York Review of Books exchange with David Reynolds, starting with:] Howe, “Goodbye to the ‘Age of Jackson’?” May 28, 2009
  • Reynolds and Howe, “Judging the Age of Jackson: An Exchange,” July 2, 2009.
  • Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper’s Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.
  • ________. Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003.

Religion / Capitalism

  • Nathan Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991)
  • Nathan Hatch, “The Second Great Awakening and the Market Revolution,” in David T. Konig, ed., Devising liberty: preserving and creating freedom in the new American Republic (1995), pp. 243-264.
  • Mary Blewett, Men, Women, and Work: class, gender, and Protest in the New England Shoe Industry, 1780-1910 (1988)
  • Naomi Lamoreaux, “Rethinking the Transition to Capitalism in the Early American Northeast,” Journal of American History 90, no. 2 (2003): 437-461.
  • Seth Rockman, “The Unfree Origins of American Capitalism,” in Cathy Matson, ed., The Economy of Early America: Historical Perspectives and New Directions (2006), chapter 12
  • Carol Shammas, A History of Household Government in America (2002)

Middle-Class Formation

  • Bushman, Richard. The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities. New York: Knopf, 1992
  • Halttunen, Karen.  Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830-1870.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982. ISBN 9780300037883
  • Thomas Augst, Clerk’s Tale
  • Brian P. Luskey, On the Make: Clarks and the Quest for Capital in Nineteenth-Century America(New York: New YorkUniversity Press, 2010)
  • Stuart Blumin, The Emergence of the Middle Class.
  • C. Dallett Hemphill, “Middle-Class Rising in Revolutionary America: The Evidence from Manners,” Journal of Social History30 (1996), 317-44.
  • C. Clark, “The Consequences of the Market Revolution in the American North,” in Market Revolution.
  • Charles Rosenberg, “Sexuality, Class and Role in 19th Century America” in Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H., eds.,The American Man.
  • Burton J. Bledstein and Robert D. Johnston, ed., The Middling Sorts: Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class(2001)

Gender, The Family, and Separate Spheres Ideology

  • Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: “Woman’s Sphere” in New England, 1780-1835.New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
  • Mary Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class
  • A.D. Stanley, “Home Life and the Morality of the Market,” in Market Revolution.[1]
  • Dana Nelson, National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men (Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 1998)
  • Dorsey, Reforming Men and Women
  • McCurry, Masters of Small Worlds
  • Mary Blewett, Men, Women, and Work: Class, Gender, and Protest in the New England Shoe Industry, 1789-1910
  • Hartog, Hendrik. Man and Wife in America:  A History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.
  • Linda K. Kerber, “Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman’s Place: The Rhetoric of Women’s History.” Journal of American History75 (1988): 9-39.
  • Gloria L. Main, “Rocking the Cradle: Downsizing the New England Family,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37, no. 1 (2006): 35-58
  • Catherine E. Kelly, “ ‘The Consummation of Rural Prosperity and Happiness’: New England Agricultural Fairs and the Construction of Class and Gender, 1810-1860,” American Quarterly 49, no. 3 (Sep. 1997): 574-602.

Politics and Partisanship

  • Joyce Appleby, Capitalism and a New Social Order
  • E. Foner, “Free Labor and Nineteenth-Century Political Ideology,” in Market Revolution.
  • J. Ashworth, “Free Labor, Wage Labor, and the Slave Power: Republicanism and the Republican Party in the 1850s,” in Market Revolution.

Jacksonian America [See also Political History]

  • Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M.  The Age of Jackson.  Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1945.
  • P. Johnson, Sam Patch (Hill and Wang) 0809083884
  • Sean Wilentz, “Many Democracies: On Tocqueville and Jacksonian America,” in
  • Abraham S. Eisenstadt, ed., Reconsidering Tocqueville’s Democracy in America
  • (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1988)
  • Nissenbaum, Sex, Diet, and Debility in Jacksonian America
  • M. Zakim, Ready-Made Democracy(Chicago) 0226977951

Agrarian Capitalism

  • David Jaffee, “Peddlers of Progress and the Transformation of the Rural North, 1760-1860,” Journal of American History78 (1991), 511-535.
  • Jonathan Prude, The Coming of the Industrial Order: Town and Factory Life in Rural Massachusetts, 1810-1860
  • James Henretta, “Families and Farms: Mentalitein Pre-Industrial America,” William and Mary Quarterly35 (1978), 3-32.
  • Michael Merrill, “Cash is Good to Eat: Self-Sufficiency and Exchange in the Rural Economy of the United States,”Radical History Review4 (Winter 1977), 42-71.
  • Allan Kulikoff, Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism(1992)
  • Christopher Clark, The Roots of Rural Capitalism: Western Massachusetts: 1780-1860.
  • Steven Hahn & Jonathan Prude, eds., The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation
  • Winifred Rothenberg, From Market-Places to a Market Economy
  • Joan Jensen, Loosening the Bonds: Mid-Atlantic Farm Women, 1750-1850
  • Richard Lyman Bushman, “Markets and Composite Farms in Early America,” William and Mary Quarterly 55, no. 3 (July 1998): 351-374

Working-Class Formation

  • Lazerow, Religion and the Working Class in Antebellum America
  • Blewett, Men, Women, and Work


  • Wendy A. Woloson, In Hock: Pawning in America from Independence through the Great Depression (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009)
  • Melanie Tebutt, Making Ends Meet: Pawnbroking and Working-Class Credit(London: Methuen, 1984)

Primary Sources

  • “The Mechanics Remonstrate against Extension of the Working Day beyond Ten Hours,” pp. 146-148 (1829)
  • “The Boston Working Men’s Party, Its Platform,” pp. 188-191 (1830)
  • National Trades’ Union, “Discussion on the Condition of Females in Manufacturing Establishments,” pp. 217-224 (1834)
  • William Leggett, “Rich and Poor,” pp. 106-110 (1834)

Travel Accounts

  • Harriet Martineau, Harriet Martineau: Studies of America, 1831-1868, 8 vols., ed. E. Susan Hoecker-Drysdale (Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2004)

Intellectual / Literature/ Life Writing

  • S. Casper, Constructing American Lives
  • A. Fabian, Unvarnished Truth
  • Justine Murison, The Politics of Anxiety in Nineteenth-Century American Literature.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 215 pp.

Theory and Methods

  • Daniel T. Rodgers, “Paths in the Social History of Ideas,” in The Worlds of American Intellectual History, ed. Joel Isaac, James T. Kloppenberg, Michael O’Brien, and Jennifer RatnerRosenhagen (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
  • Thomas Bender, “Intellectual and Cultural History,” in The New American History, ed. Eric Foner (1997)
  • Anthony Grafton, “The History of Ideas: Precept and Practice, 1950-2000 and Beyond,” Journal of the History of Ideas(January 2006): 1-32.
  • Quentin Skinner, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,” in Meaning and Context:  Quentin Skinner and His Critics, ed. James Tully (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), pp. 29-67.
  • David Hollinger, “Historians and the Discourse of Intellectuals,” in John Higham and Paul K. Conkin, eds., New Directions in American Intellectual History(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 42-63.
  • James T. Kloppenberg, “Objectivity and Historicism:  A Century of American Historical Writing,” The American Historical Review94 (October 1989):  1011-1030.

American Thought

  • Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age(1998)
  • Thomas Bender, The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation
  • Linda Kerber, Toward an Intellectual History of Women(2000)
  • Mary Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak: Women, Education, and Public Life in America’s Republic(2006)
  • Kathryn Kish Sklar, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity(1973)
  • George Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (1971)
  • Ross Posnock, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of the Modern Intellectual(1998)
  • Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, A Sacred Circle: The Dilemma of the Intellectual in the Old South, 1840-1860
  • Lawrence Vuell, Emerson(2004)
  • Louise Stevenson, The Victorian Homefront: American Thought and Culture,1860-1880 (1991)
  • William Lee Miller, Lincoln’s Virtues: An Ethical Biography(2002)
  • James T. Kloppenberg, “The Canvas and the Color: Tocqueville’s Philosophical History and Why It Matters Now,” Modern Intellectual History, 3,3, (2006): 495-521.
  • Alexandra Oleson and John Voss, The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1865-1920 (1979)
  • Andrew Jewett, Science, Democracy, and the American University: From the Civil War to the Cold War, 2003.
  • Trygve Throntveit, William James & the Quest for an Ethical Republic(New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)


  • Ann Fabian, Unvarnished Truth: Personal Narratives in Nineteenth Century America
  • Lisa Gitelman, Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines
  • Leon Jackson, Business of Letters: Authorial Economies in Antebellum America
  • Mary Kelley, Private Woman, Public Stage
  • Molly McCarthy, The Accidental Diarist
  • Meredith McGill, American Literature and the Culture of Reprinting
  • Jonathan Sterne, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction
  • Tamara Plakins Thornton, Handwriting in America

Primary Sources

  • Alexis de Tocqueville
  • Stott (ed.), History of My Own Times(Cornell) 0801499615
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • David Walker
  • Martin Delany
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • John C. Calhoun
  • George Lippard
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • William Walker
  • Elizabeth Stuart Phelps (Gates Ajartrilogy)
  • Walt Whitman
  • Emily Dickinson
  • Herman Melville
  • Mark Twain

Early American and Antebellum Slavery

  • Baptist, Edward, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism(2014)
  • Berlin, Ira.  Many Thousands Gone:  The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.
  • ________., ed., Slavery and Freedom in the Era of the American Revolution (1983)
  • Kolchin, Peter.  American Slavery, 1619-1877.  Eric Foner, consulting ed.  New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
  • Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999) 0674005392
  • ________., “The Slave Trader, the White Slave, and the Politics of Racial
  • Determination in the 1850s,” Journal of American History87, no. 1 (June 2000): 13-38
  • ________., River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Emancipation in the Cotton Kingdom
  • David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (New York:Oxford University Press, 2006)
  • Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made
  • Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877 (1993)
  • John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (1972)
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E.  The Slaveholding Republic:  An Account of the United States Government’s Relations to Slavery.  Completed and edited by Ward M. McAfee. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Sally Hadden, Slave Patrols:  Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas. Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Sterling Stuckey, Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)
  • Rosenthal, ‘Slavery’s Scientific Management,” in Sven Beckert and Seth Rockman, Slavery’s Capitalism[Ask me for copy]
  • Margaret Creel, A Peculiar People: Slave Religion and Community-Culture Among the Gullahs (New York: New York University Press, 1989)
  • Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom
  • Philip D. Morgan, “Work and Culture: The Task System and the World of Lowcountry Blacks, 1700-1880,” William and Mary Quarterly39 (1982), 563-99.

Slave Families

  • Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow(New York: Basic Books,
  • 1985)
  • Steven C. Weisenburger, Modern Medea: A Family Story of Slavery and Child-Murder from the Old South (Hill and Wang, 1999)
  • Norrece Jones, Born a Child of Freedom, Yet a Slave: Mechanisms of Control
  • and Strategies of Resistance in Antebellum South Carolina
  • Brenda Stevenson, Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)


  • Deborah Gray White, Arn’t I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South
  • Patricia Morton, ed., Discovering the Women in Slavery: Emancipating Perspectives On the American Past (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996)
  • Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (University of North Carolina Press Books, 1988)
  • James Cullen, “I’s a Man Now: Gender and African American Men.” in
  • Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 76-91.
  • Carol Bleser, ed., In Joy and in Sorrow: Women, Family, and Marriage in the Victorian South, 1830-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991)
  • Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York: W.W. Norton, 1984)
  • Melton McLaurin, Celia, A Slave (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991


  • Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982)
  • James Oakes, The Ruling Race: A History of American Slaveholders
  • Drew Faust, ed., The Ideology of Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Antebellum South, 1830-1860
  • Stephanie McCurry, Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)
  • Catherine Clinton, The Plantation Mistress:Woman’s World in the Old South (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982)
  • Joan Cashin, Family Venture: Men and Women on the Southern Frontier
  • Suzanne Lebsock, The Free Women of Petersburg
  • Drew Faust, Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War
  • Lacy Ford, Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860
  • Varon, We Mean To Be Counted: White Women and Politics in Antebellum Virginia
  • Catherine Clinton,Tara Revisited: Women, War, and the Plantation Legend(1995)Geographies
  • Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South
  • Davis, David Brion.  The Problem of Slavery in The Age of Revolution, 1770- 1823 Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975.
  • Merk, Frederick.  Slavery and the Annexation of Texas.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972.
  • William Dusinberre, Them Dark Days: Slavery in the American Rice Swamps (1996)
  • Charles Joyner, Down by the Riverside: A South Carolina Slave Community


  • Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944)
  • Eugene Genovese, The Political Economy of Slavery.
  • Gavin Wright, The Political Economy of the Cotton South
  • Fogel and Engerman, Time On The Cross
  • Herbert G. Gutman, Slavery and the Numbers Game
  • Genovese and Genovese, Fruits of Merchant Capital
  • Barbara J. Fields, Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground
  • Robert Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery
  • Robin L. Einhorn, “Slavery,” from the Business History Conference (Oxford University Press, 2008)


  • Albert Raboteau, Slave Religion
  • Slave Resistance and Rebellion
  • Aptheker, Herbert.  American Slave Revolts.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1943.
  • Stephanie M.H. Camp, Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (2004)
  • John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger, Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation (1999)
  • Norrece Jones, Born a Child of Freedom, Yet a Slave: Mechanisms of Control and Strategies of Resistance in Antebellum South Carolina (Hanover:
  • University Press of New England: 1990)
  • Douglas Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800-1802(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993)
  • Egerton, Douglas R.  Gabriel’s Rebellion:  The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution:  Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World. Baton Rouge:  Louisiana State University Press, 1979.
  • ________., Roll, Jordan, Roll, book 4
  • Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters, ch. 6
  • Williams-Meyers, A. J.  “Slavery, Rebellion, and Revolution in the Americas:  A
  • Historiographical Scenario on the Theses of Genovese and Others.”  Journal of Black Studies 26:4 (Mar. 1996), 381-400.


  • Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell.  American Negro Slavery:  A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Régime.  New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1918.
  • Stampp, Kenneth Milton. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South.  New York:  Knopf, 1956.
  • Elkins, Stanley M.  Slavery:  A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.
  • Jordan, Winthrop D.  White Over Black:  American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812.  (1968)
  • Engerman, Stanley L. “Slavery and Emancipation in Comparative Perspective: A Look at Some Recent Debates.”  The Journal of Economic History 46:2, The Tasks of Economic History (Jun. 1986), 317-339.

Primary Sources

  • Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or, Gustavus Vassa, the African.  In The Classic Slave Narratives. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed.  New York: Penguin, 1987. [1st , London:  O. Equiano, 1789].
  • Walker, David. David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, In Four Articles. Boston:  Walker, 1829.
  • Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An African Slave.  In The Classic Slave Narratives.  Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed.  New York: Penguin, 1987.  [1st , Boston:  Boston Anti-Slavery Society, 1845].
  • Bibb, Henry. Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written By Himself.  New York:  Published by the Author, 1849.
  • Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin.(1852)
  • Wilson, Harriet E.Our Nig: Or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black.  New York: Vintage, 2002.  First ed., Boston: C. Rand & Avery, 1859.
  • Jacobs, Harriet A. [AKA Linda Brendt]. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.  In The Classic Slave Narratives.  Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed.  New York: Penguin, 1987. First, Boston:  Published for the author, 1861.
  • Tench Coxe, “A Memoir… upon the Subject of the Cotton Wool Cultivation, the Cotton Trade, and the Cotton Manufactories of the United States of America” (1817)
  • Slave Solomon Northup, “Cotton Growing” in Twelve Years a Slave, XII, pp. 162-175 (1854)
  • James Henry Hammond, “Cotton is King” (1858)

Antebellum Culture

Visual Culture

  • Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992)
  • Alan Trachtenberg, Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Matthew Brady to Walker Evans(New York: Hill and Wang, 1989)
  • Sandweiss, Martha A. Print the Legend: Photography and the American West. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Jaffee, David. “One of the Primitive Sort: Portrait Makers of the Rural North, 1760-1860.” In Steven Hahn and Jonathan Prude, eds. The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985)
  • Steven Kasher, Brian Wallis, Geoffrey Batchen, and Karen Halttunen, America and the Tintype (New York: Steidl/ICP, 2008)
  • Vicki Goldberg, Ed., Photography In Print: Writings From 1816 To the Present (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981)
  • Braudy, Leo.  The Frenzy of Renown:  Fame & Its History.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1986.  Chapters on nineteenth century.
  • Paul Clee, Before Hollywood: From Shadow Play to the Silver Screen (New York: Clarion Books, 2005)
  • Smith, Shawn Michelle.  American Archives:  Gender, Race, and Class in Visual Culture.  Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press, 1999.
  • Taft, Robert.Photography and the American Scene.1938; reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1964.
  • Thomas, Alan. Time In A Frame: Photography and the Nineteenth-Century Mind. New York: Schocken Books, 1977.
  • Welling, William. Photography in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1978.
  • Newhall, Beaumont. The Daguerreotype in America. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1961.
  • Rudisill, Richard. Mirror Image: The Influence of the Daguerreotype on American Society. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1972.
  • Rugg, Linda Haverty. Picturing Ourselves: Photography & Autobiography. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997.
  • Kasher, Steven. America and the Tintype.New York: Steidl/ICP, 2008.
  • Joan Severa, Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900(Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995)
  • Rinhart, Floyd, Marion Rinhart, and Robert W. Wagner. The American Tintype. Columbus, OH: Ohio State UniversityPress, 1999.
  • Albert Bigelow Paine, Thomas Nast: His Period and His Pictures (New York: MacMillan Co., 1904)
  • Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: A Cultural History. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002.
  • John Davis, The Landscape of Belief: Encountering the Holy Land in Nineteenth-Century American Art and Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996)
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., “Stereoscope and Stereograph,” Atlantic Magazine (June 1859).
  • Brenton J. Malin, “Looking White and Middle-Class: Stereoscopic Imagery and Technology in the Early Twentieth CenturyUnited States,”Quarterly Journal of Speech 93:4 (2007).

Visual Culture Theory

  • Simmel, Georg. “The Metropolis and Mental Life.” In On Individuality and Social Forms, edited by Donald N. Levine. Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1971.
  • Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978.
  • Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. Photography at the Dock: Essays on Photographic History, Institutions, and Practices.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
  • Wilson, Michael L. “Visual Culture: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis?” In The Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture Reader, edited by Vanessa R. Schwartz and Jeannene M. Przyblyski, 26-33. New York: Routledge, 2004.
  • Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
  • ________. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
  • Miller, David C., ed. American Iconology: New Approaches to Nineteenth-Century Art and Literature. New Haven: YaleUniversityPress, 1993.

Urban History / Architecture and the Built Environment / Print Culture / Communications / Transportation / Mass Culture / Public Sphere

  • Shelley Streeby, American Sensations: Class, Empire, and the Production of Popular Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002)
  • David M. Henkin, The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communications in Nineteenth-Century America (University of Chicago Press, 2006)
  • Harris, Neil. Humbug; the Art of P. T. Barnum.  Boston:  Little, Brown, 1973.
  • Gunther Barth, Instant Cities: Urbanization and the Rise of San Francisco and Denver (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975)
  • Gunther Barth, City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980)
  • Adams, Bluford. E Pluribus Barnum: the Great Showman and the Making of U.S. Popular Culture. Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
  • Levine, Lawrence W. Highbrow Lowbrow:  The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
  • Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Neil Harris, Building Lives: Constructing Rights and Passages (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999)
  • Sentilles, Renee M. Performing Menken: Adah Isaacs Menken and the Birth of American Celebrity.New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Nissenbaum, Stephen.  Sex, Diet, and Debility in Jacksonian America: The Case of Sylvester Graham and Health Reform.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood Press, 1980.
  • ________.  The Battle for Christmas.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
  • Richard R. John, Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (Harvard University Press, 1995)
  • Kevin G. Barnhurst and John Nerone, The Form of News: A History (Guilford Press, 2002)
  • Stillson, Richard. Spreading the Word: A History of Information in the California Gold Rush. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
  • Gregory Clark and S. Michael Halloran, Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993)

Material Culture

  • Linda Baumgartern, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002)
  • Elizabeth Wilson, Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity(New York: I.B. Tauris, 1985; 2003)
  • Severa, Dressed for the Photographer
  • Leora Auslander, Cultural Revolutions: Everyday Life and Politics in Britain, North America, and France(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008)
  • Gayle V. Fischer, Pantaloons and Power: A Nineteenth Century Dress Reform in the United States(Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2001)
  • Michael Zakim, Ready Made Democracy: A History of Men’s Dress in the American Republic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)
  • Florence Montgomery, Textiles in America: 1650-1870(New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007)
  • Valerie Steel, The Corset: A Cultural History(New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001)
  • Lou Taylor, The Study of Dress History(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002)
  • John Styles, “Dress in History: Reflections on a Contested Terrain,” Fashion Theory, vol. 2, no. 4 (1998): 385.
  • Igor Kopytoff, “The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization of Process,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Arjun Appadurai (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
  • Arjun Appadurai, “Introduction,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective,ed. Arjun Appadurai (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
  • Susan Strasser, Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1999)
  • Carl A. Zimring, Cash for Your Trash: Scrap Recycling in America(Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005; 2009)
  • Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining, “Cutting a New Pattern: Uniforms and Women’s Mobilization for War, 1854-1919.”Textile History and Meaning41:1 (May 2010): 108-143.

Material Culture Theory and Pedagogy

  • Ian Woodward, Understanding Material Culture(Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007)
  • Leora Auslander, Taste and Power: Furnishing Modern France(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996)
  • Leora Auslander, “Beyond Words,” The American Historical Review110:4 (October 2005)


  • Alfred F. Young, “George Roberts Twelves Hewes (1742-1840): A Boston Shoemaker and the Memory of the American Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly 38 (1981), 561-623.
  • Lipsitz, George. Time Passages: Collective Memory and AmericanPopular Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

Southern Life

  • M. Smith, Mastered by the Clock(UNC) 0807846937
  • Kenneth Greenberg, Honor and Slavery (Princeton) 0691017190

Sexual Violence

  • Srebnick, Amy Gilman. The Mysterious Death of Mary Rogers:  Sex and Culture in Nineteenth-Century New York.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Patricia Cline Cohen, The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (New York: Vintage, 1998)0679740759

Race Relations and Interracial Sex

  • Litwack, Leon F.  North of Slavery; the Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
  • Ira Berlin, Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York: The New Press, 1974)
  • Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men:  Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race.  Cambridge:  Harvard UniversityPress, 2002.]
  • Rothman, Joshua D.  Notorious in the Neighborhood: Sex and Families across the Color Line in Virginia, 1787-1861.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
  • Gary B. Nash, “The Hidden History of Mestizo America,’ Journal of American History82 (1995), 941-62.
  • M. Hodes, White Women, Black Men: Illicit Sex in the 19th-century South (1997)(Yale) 0300077505
  • M. Hodes, Sea Captain’s Wife(Norton) 039333029X
  • Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America(New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)
  • Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, eds., The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South
  • Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence,” in Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson, eds, Powers of Desire.

Entertainment, Expressions, and Performances

  • Ann Vincent Fabian, Card Sharps, Dream Books, & Bucket Shops: Gambling in 19th Century America (Routledge) 0415923573
  • J. Cook, Arts of Deception (Harvard) 0674005910
  • Levine, Lawrence W. “William Shakespeare and the American People: A Study in Cultural Transformation.” In The Unpredictable Past: Explorations in America Cultural History.
  • Peter Stearns and Jan Lewis, eds., An Emotional History of the United States
  • Jon Finson, The Voices That Are Gone: Themes in Nineteenth-Century American Popular Song(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)
  • Eric Lott, Love and Theft:  Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993)
  • Stephen Johnson, Burnt Cork: Traditions and Legacies of Blackface Minstrelsy (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012)
  • John Strausbaugh, Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface, Insult & Imitation in American Popular Culture(New York: Penguin, 2007)
  • William John Mahar, Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture(Chicago:  University of Illinois Press, 1999)
  • W. T. Lhamon, Jump Jim Crow: Lost Plays, Lyrics, and Street Prose of the First Atlantic Popular Culture(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003)
  • Alexander Saxton, “Blackface Minstrelsy and Jacksonian Ideology,” American Quarterly27 (1975), 3-28. Article Stable URL:
  • David Roediger, “Class, Coons, and Crowds in Antebellum American Culture,” Ch. 5 in The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York: Verso, 2007)
  • Thomas L. Riis, “The Music and Musicians in Nineteenth-Century Productions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin American,” Music 4:3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 268-286. Article Stable URL:
  • Conway, Cecelia. “The Ritual of Minstrelsy: Some Were Buffoons, but Others Were Apprentices.” In African Banjo Echoes in Appalachia: A Study of Folk Traditions. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995

Theory and Pedagogy

  • Clifford Geertz, “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture” and “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight,” both from The Interpretation of Cultures (1973; New York: Basic Books, 2000), pp. 3-30, 412-453.
  • William H. Sewell, Jr., “The Concept(s) of Culture,” in Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture, eds. Victoria E. Bonnell and Lynn Hunt(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 35-61.
  • Lawrence W. Levine, “The Folklore of Industrial Society: Popular Culture and its Audiences,” and responses by Robin D. G. Kelley, Natalie Zemon Davis, T. J. Jackson Lears, and Levine, American Historical Review 97, no. 5 (December 1992), 1369-1430.

Cultural Methodology and Theory

  • Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence (1962; Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989).
  • James W. Cook and Lawrence B. Glickman, “Twelve Propositions for a History of U.S. Cultural History,” in The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present & Future, ed. Cook, Glickman, and Michael O’Malley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 3-57.
  • Lynn Hunt, “Introduction: History, Culture, and Text,” in The New Cultural History, ed. Hunt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 1-24.
  • David A. Hollinger, “Historians and the Discourse of Intellectuals,” in In the American Province: Studies in the History and Historiography of Ideas(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 130-151.
  • Rhys Isaac, “A Discourse on the Method: Action, Structure, and Meaning,” in The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (1982; Norton, 1988), 323-357
  • Denker, Ellen Paul. “Evaluating Exhibitions: History Museums and Material Culture.” In American Material Culture: The Shape of the Field. Winterthur, DE: Henry Francis du Pont WinterthurMuseum, 1997: pp. 381-400.
  • Martin, Ann Smart and J. Ritchie Garrison. “Shaping the Field: The Multidisciplinary Perspectives of Material Culture.” In American Material Culture: The Shape of the Field. Winterthur, DE: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1997: pp. 1-20.

Primary Sources

  • Bean, Annemarie, James V. Hatch, and Brooks McNamara, ed. Inside the Minstrel Mask, Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy.  (1996)
  • D. Rice, Jim Crow, American: Selected Songs and Plays,ed. and intro. by W. T. Lhamon (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009)
  • Barnum, Phineas T. The Life of P. T. Barnum: Written by Himself.  Terence Whalen, ed.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000 [1st, New York, 1855].

Antebellum Labor History

Working Class Identity

  • Alan Dawley, Class and Community: The Industrial Revolution in Lynn
  • David Roediger, Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class
  • Paul Johnson, A Shopkeepers’ Millennium
  • Bruce Laurie, Artisans Into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth-Century America
  • Sean Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American
  • Working Class (1984)
  • David Brody, In Labor’s Cause: Main Themes on the History of the American Worker Blewett, Men, Women, and Work
  • Peter Way, Common Labour: Workers and the Digging of North American Canals, 1780-1860
  • Herbert Gutman, Work, Culture & Society in Industrializing America

Theory and Pedagogy

  • E.P. Thompson, “Preface,”The Making of the English Working Class, pp. 9-13.
  • Sean Wilentz, “Against Exceptionalism: Class Consciousness and the American Labor Movement,” International Labor and Working-Class History 26 (Fall 1984): 1-24 & response by Nick Salvatore, 25-30

Industrialization: Transforming Work and Society

  • David Grimsted, “Ante-Bellum Labor: Violence, Strike and Communal Arbitration, Journal of Social History19 (1985), 5-28.
  • Barbara Tucker, Samuel Slater and the Origins of the American Textile Industry, 1790-1860
  • Judith A., McGaw, Most Wonderful Machine: Mechanization and Social Change in Berkshire Paper Making, 1801-1885
  • Cynthia Shelton, The Mills of Manayunk: Industrialization and Social Conflict in the Philadelphia Region, 1787-1837(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986)
  • Levy, Jonathan. Freaks of Fortune(2012)

Women’s Work

  • Ruth Schwartz Cowan, More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Heart to the Microwave(New York: Basic Books, 1983)
  • Thomas Dublin, Women at Work
  • Thomas Dublin, Transforming Women’s Work: New England Lives in the Industrial Revolution.
  • Jeanne Boydston, “The Woman Who Wasn’t There: Women’s Market Labor and the Transition to Capitalism in the United States,” Journal of the Early Republic 16 (Summer 1996), 183-206. Also reprinted in Paul A. Gilje, ed., Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic(1997), pp. 23-47.
  • Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, “ ‘The Living Mother of a Living Child’: Midwifery and Mortality in Post-Revolutionary New England,” William and Mary Quarterly 46 (1989): 27-48.
  • Ava Baron, ed., Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor

Social History

  • Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: From Jefferson to Lincoln (Norton, 2005)
  • Jack Larkin, The Reshaping of Everyday Life, 1780-1840 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988)
  • Daniel E. Sutherland, The Expansion of Everyday Life, 1860-1876(New York: Harper and Row, 1989)
  • Thomas J. Schlereth, Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915 (New York: HarperCollins, 1991)


  • Alice Kessler Harris, “Social History,” in Eric Foner, ed., The New American History(1990), pp. 163-80.
  • Fred Anderson and Andrew R.L. Cayton, “The Problem of Fragmentation and the Prospects of Synthesis in Early American Social History,” William and Mary Quarterly 50 (1993), 299-310.
  • Eric H. Monkkonen, “The Dangers of Synthesis,” American Historical Review91 (1986), 1146-57.
  • Thomas Bender, “Wholes and Parts: The Need for Synthesis in American History,” Journal of American History73 (1986), 120-136; and roundtable response, Journal of American History 74 (1987), 107-130.
  • Thomas Bender, “Strategies of Narrative Synthesis in American History,” AHR Vol. 107, No. 1 (Feb., 2002), 129‐153.
  • David Thelen, Nell Irvin Painter, Richard Wightman Fox, Roy Rosenzweig, and
  • Thomas Bender, “Round Table: Synthesis in American History,”JAH 74, no. 1 (June 1987), 107‐130.
  • William W. Freehling, “Toward a Newer Political History—and a Reintegrated Multicultural History,” in The Reintegration of American History: Slavery and the Civil War (Oxford, 1994), 253‐274.
  • Dorothy Ross, “Grand Narrative in American Historical Writing: From Romance to Uncertainty,” AHR 100, no. 3 (1995), 651‐677.
  • Mary P. Ryan, “Narratives of Democracy, or History with Subjects,” American Literary History 8, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 311‐327.

White Racism in America

  • Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic.
  • Michael Rogin, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indians
  • Reginald Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny
  • Lott, Love and Theft
  • Nell Irvin Painter,The History of White People (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2010)
  • Western Expansion and the Mexican-American War
  • Richard Bruce Winders, Mr. Polk’s Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War(College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1997)
  • Brian Delay, War of a Thousand Deserts  (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008)
  • Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny

General Reform Studies

  • Ronald G. Walters, American Reformers, 1815–1860(New York: HarperCollins, 1978)
  • Lawrence Frederick Kohl, “The Concept of Social Control and the History of
  • Jacksonian America,”Journal of the Early Republic5 (1985)
  • Lori Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence.
  • Nancy Hewitt, Women’s Activism and Social Change.
  • Robert Abzug, Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination.
  • Clifford S. Griffin, Their Brother’s Keepers: Moral Stewardship in the United States, 1800-1865 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1960)
  • Donald F. Carmony and Josephine M. Elliot, “New Harmony, Indiana: Robert Owen’s Seedbed for Utopia,” Indiana Magazine of History76 (September 1980): 161-261.
  • John Thomas, “Romantic Reform in America, 1815-1856,”American Quarterly 17 (Winter 1965)

Women and Reform

  • Lori Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence.
  • Shirley Yee, Black Women Abolitionists: A Study in Activism, 1828-1860.
  • Stacey M. Robertson, Hearts Beating for Liberty: Women Abolitionists in the Old Northwest(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010)
  • Nancy Hewitt, Women’s Activism and Social Change.
  • Painter, Sojourner Truth.
  • Lori D. Ginzberg, “‘The Hearts of Your Readers Will Shudder’: Fanny Wright, Infidelity, and American Freethought,” American Quarterly 46 (June 1994)
  • Anne M. Boylan, The Origins of Women’s Activism: New York and Boston, 1797-1840 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002)


  • Ian Tyrell, Sobering Up: From Temperance to Prohibition in Antebellum America
  • W. J. Rorabaugh,The Alcoholic Republic
  • Alexander, Ruth M. “‘We Are Engaged as a Band of Sisters’: Class and Domesticity in the Washingtonian Temperance Movement, 1840-1850,” Journal of American History 75 (December 1988), 763-85.


  • Mischa Honeck, We are the Revolutionists: German-Speaking Immigrants and American Abolitionists after 1848(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011)
  • David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966)
  • Louis Filler, Crusade against Slavery: Friends, Foes, and Reforms, 1820–1860 (New York: Harper, 1960)
  • Gilbert H. Barnes,The Anti-Slavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1964)
  • James Brewer Stewart,Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (New York: Hill & Wang, 1976)
  • Lewis Perry, Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979)
  • Ronald G. Walters,The Antislavery Appeal: American Abolitionism after 1830 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1984)
  • Henry Mayer, All on Fire: Henry Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998)
  • Mason Lowance, ed.,Against Slavery: An Abolitionist Reader (New York: Penguin Books, 2000)
  • Shirley Yee, Black Women Abolitionists: A Study in Activism, 1828-1860.
  • Ronald G. Walters, “The Erotic South: Civilization and Sexuality in American Abolitionism,” American Quarterly 25, no. 2 (May 1973), 177-201
  • Painter, Sojourner Truth.
  • Thomas Bender, ed., The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation (University of California Press, 1992)
  • Carol Lasser, “Voyeuristic Abolitionism: Sex, Gender, and the Transformation of Antislavery Rhetoric,”Journal of the Early Republic 28, no. 1 (2008), 83-114.
  • Jean Fagan Yellin and John C. Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America.

Madness, Crime, and Punishment

  • David Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971)
  • Louis Masur, Rites of Execution
  • Gerald Grob, The Mad Among Us: A History of the Care of America’s Mentally Ill
  • Mary Jimenez, Changing Faces of Madness: Early American Attitudes and Treatment of the Insane
  • Daniel Cohen, Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace: New England Crime Literature and the Origins of American Popular Culture.
  • Michael J. Pfeifer, The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2011)
  • ________.,Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947 (2006)

Primary Sources

  • Robert Owen, A New View of Society and Other Writings (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927)
  • Frances Wright, Views of Society and Manners in America, Paul Baker (1822; Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963)
  • Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans (London: Whittaker, Treacher, & Co., 1832)

Urban History

Public Spaces

  • David M. Henkin, City Reading: Written Words and Public Spaces in Antebellum New York (New York: Columbia  University Press, 1998) 0231107455
  • Kirk Savage, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth Century America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997), ISBN9780691009476
  • Mary Ryan, Civic Wars:Democracy and Public Life in the American City During the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)
  • Paul S. Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order in America, 1820-1920 (1978)
  • Stott, Richard. Workers in the Metropolis: Class, Ethnicity and Youth in Antebellum New York City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.
  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (1999)
  • Tyler Anbinder, Five Points: The New York City Neighborhood that Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World’s Most Notorious Slum (2001)
  • James Gilbert, Perfect Cities: Chicago’s Utopias of 1893 (1993)
  • Tyler Anbinder, “From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne’s Irish Tenants Encounter North America’s Most Notorious Slum,” American Historical Review 107, no. 2 (April 2002): 351-387.
  • Susan G. Davis, Parades and Power: Street Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
  • Lisa Tolbert, Constructing Townscapes: Space and Society in Antebellum Tennessee (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)
  • Dolores Hayden, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995)
  • Amy S. Greenberg, “Pirates, Patriots, and Public Meetings: Antebellum Expansion and Urban Culture,” Journal of Urban History31, no. 5 (July 2005), 634-650.
  • Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar, The Park and the People: A History of Central Park (1992)


  • Christine Stansell, City of Women: Sex and Class in New York, 1789-1860(New York: Knopf, 1986)
  • Mary Ryan, Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825-1880.
  • Paula Baker, The Moral Frameworks of Public Life: Gender, Politics and the State in Rural New York, 1870-1930.
  • Glenna Matthews, The Rise of the Public Woman: Woman’s Power and Woman’s Place in the United States, 1630-1970.
  • Elizabeth Varon, “Tippecanoe and the Ladies Too: White Women and Party Politics in Antebellum Virginia,”Journal of American History82 (1995), 494-521.


  • Bradford Verter, “Interracial Festivity and Power in Antebellum New York: The Case of Pinkster,” Journal of Urban History28, no. 4 (May 2002), 398-428.
  • Paul Gilje, The Road to Mobocracy: Popular Disorder in New York City, 1763-1834
  • Robin F. Bachin, Building the South Side: Urban Space and Civic Culture in Chicago, 1890-1919(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004)


  • Michael Feldberg,The Turbulent Era: Riot and Disorder in Jacksonian America (New York: Oxford University Press,1980)

Political Space

  • Carl Abbott, Political Terrain: Washington D.C., from Tidewater Town to Global Metropolis (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)
  • Philip J. Ethington, “Recasting Urban Political History: Gender, the Public, the Household, and Political Participation in Boston and San Francisco During the Progressive Era,” Social Science History18 (Summer 1992), 301-33.


  • Robert Orsi, ed., Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999)
  • Wayne Ashley, “The Stations of the Cross: Christ, Politics and Processions on New York’s Lower East Side,” in Robert Orsi, ed., Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999), 341-366
  • Diane Winston, “The Cathedral of the Open Air’: The Salvation Army’s Sacralization of Secular Space, New York City, 1880-1910,” in Robert Orsi, ed., Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999), 367-392.

The Urban South

  • Ari Kelman, A River and its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003)
  • Alecia P. Long, The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004)

Tourism and Boosterism

  • Elizabeth Grant, “Race and Tourism in America’s First City,”Journal of Urban History 31, no. 6 (Sept. 2005), 850-871.
  • Norman Klein, “Booster Myths, Urban Erasure,” in The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (London: Verso, 1997)
  • J. Mark Souther, “The Disneyfication of New Orleans: The French Quarter as Facade in a Divided City,” Journal of American History 94, no. 3 (Dec. 2007), 804-811.


  • Dolores Hayden, Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000 (New York: Pantheon, 2003)
  • Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States

Urban and Public Space Theory

  • Jurgen Habermas, “The Public Sphere” (1964)
  • Craig Calhoun, “Introduction: Habermas and the Public Sphere,” in Calhoun, ed., Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992), 1-48.
  • M. Gottdiener, The Social Production of Urban Space (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985)
  • Karen Halttunen, “Groundwork: American Studies in Place — Presidential Address to the American Studies Association, November 4, 2005,American Quarterly 58, no. 1 (March 2006), 1-15.
  • Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (London: Verso, 1990)
  • Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish
  • Jeffrey Weeks, “Foucault for Historians,” History Workshop14 (Autumn 1982), 106-119.
  • Doreen Massey, “Places and their Pasts,” History Workshop, issue no. 39 (1995), 182-92.
  • Raymond A. Mohl, “City and Region: The Missing Dimension in U.S. Urban History,” Journal of Urban History 25, no. 1 (1998), 3-21.
  • Yi-Fu Tuan, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience(1977)
  • Chauncy D. Harris and Edward L. Ullman, “The Nature of Cities,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 242 (Nov. 1945), 7-17.
  • Louis Wirth, “Urbanism as a Way of Life,” American Journal of Sociology 44, no. 1 (July, 1938), 1-24.

Primary Sources

  • George Foster, New York by Gaslight, by Stuart M. Blumin

Southern History

  • Cash, W. J.  The Mind of the South.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1941.
  • Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow
  • ________.  The Burden of Southern History
  • James M. McPherson, “Antebellum Southern Exceptionalism: A New Look at an Old Question,” Civil War History 29, no. 3 (1983): 230-244
  • Edward Pessen, “How Different from Each Other were the Antebellum North and South?” American Historical Review 85, no. 5 (1980): 1119-1149
  • Mary Lethert Wingerd, “Rethinking Paternalism: Power and Parochialism in a Southern Mill Village,” Journal of American History 83, no. 3 (Dec. 1996), 872-902
  • Rebecca Mark and Rob Vaughan, eds., The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures: The South(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004)

Class Relations in the Slave South

  • James Oakes, Slavery and Freedom: An Interpretation of the Old South (1990)
  • J. William Harris, Plain Folk and Gentry in a Slave Society
  • Stephanie McCurry, Masters of Small Worlds
  • Victoria Bynum, Unruly Women: The Politics of Social and Sexual Control in the Old South
  • Elliott Gorn, “‘Gouge and Bite, Pull Hair and Scratch’: The Social Significance of Fighting in the Southern Backcountry,” American Historical Review90 (1985), 18-43.
  • Dennis C. Rousey, “Aliens in the WASP Nest: Ethnocultural Diversity in the Antebellum Urban South,” Journal of American History 79 (1992), 152-164
  • Charles C. Bolton, Poor Whites of the Antebellum South
  • Bill Cecil-Fronsman, Comon Whites: Class and Culture in Antebellum North Carolina
  • Allen Tullos, Habits of Industry: White Culture and the Transformation of the Carolina Piedmont
  • Kenneth Greenberg, Honor and Slavery Gender
  • Varon, We Mean To Be Counted: White Women and Politics in Antebellum Virginia
  • Catherine Clinton,Tara Revisited: Women, War, and the Plantation Legend (1995)

African American History

  • Ferguson, Leland. Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800(Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992)
  • L. Levine, Black Culture, Black Consciousness(Oxford) 019530568X
  • Litwack, North of Slavery
  • Berlin, Slaves Without Masters
  • Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet
  • Molly Rogers, Delia’s Tears: Race, Science, and Photography in Nineteenth-Century America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010)
  • W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed., Beyond Blackface: African Americans and the Creation of American Popular Culture, 1890-1930(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2011)
  • Painter, Exodusters
  • White, Shane. “The Death of James Johnson.” American Quarterly. Vol. 51, no. 4 (December 1999): 753-795.

African American Women’s History

  • Nell Painter, Sojourner Truth: A life, A Symbol (1996)
  • Yee, Black Women Abolitionists
  • Jennifer Morgan. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004
  • Tera W. Hunter, To `Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors after the Civil War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • White, Deborah Gray.  Ar’n’t I A Woman?:  Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:  W. W. Norton & Co., 1985.
  • Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn.  African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1998.
  • Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the
  • Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Evelyn Higginbotham, “African American Women’s History and the Metalanguage of Race,”Signs17:2 (Wint 92), 251-74.

Theory and Pedagogy

  • Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, “African American Women’s History and the
  • Metalanguage of Race,” Signs17:2 (Wint 92), 251-74.
  • Barbara Fields, “Ideology and Race in American History,” in J. Morgan
  • Kousser and James McPherson, eds., Region, Race, and Reconstruction, pp. 143-77.

Primary Sources


  • J. Faragher, Sugar Creek (Yale)
  • Elliott West, The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado (University Press of Kansas, 2000)
  • William G. Robbins, “In Pursuit of Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Knowing the American West,” Western Historical Quarterly 30 (1999): 277-293.
  • Alan Taylor, William Cooper’s Town: Power and Persuasion on the Frontier of the Early American Republic (1995)
  • Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Community in Gold Rush California, Edited by Kevin Starr and Richard J. Orsi. Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress, 2000.
  • Samuel Truett, Fugitive Landscapes: The Forgotten History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006).
  • Casey Walsh, Building the Borderlands:A Transnational History of Irrigated Cotton along the Mexico-Texas Border
  • María Montoya, Translating Property: The Maxwell Land Grant and the Conflict Over Land in the American West, 1840-1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).
  • Andrés Reséndez, Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New Mexico, 1800-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
  • David Montejano, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987)
  • James Brooks, Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands
  • Charles Montgomery, The Spanish Redemption: Heritage, Power, and Loss on New Mexico’s Upper Rio Grande (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002)
  • Benjamin Johnson, Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans (New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2003).
  • Ross Frank, From Settler to Citizen: New Mexican Economic Development and the Creation of Vecino Society, 1750-1820 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
  • Andrew Graybill, Policing the Great Plains: Rangers, Mounties, and the North American Frontier, 1875-1910 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007).
  • Gunther Peck, Reinventing Free Labor: Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880-1930 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
  • John Nieto-Phillips, The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s-1930s (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004).
  • Susan E. Gray, “Local Speculator as Confidence Man: Mumford Eldred, Jr., and the Michigan Land Rush,” Journal of the Early Republic10 (1990), 383-406
  • Steven Deyle, “The Irony of Liberty: Origins of the Domestic Slave Trade,” Journal of the Early Republic12 (1992), 37-62
  • Keyes, Sarah. “’Like a Roaring Lion’: The Overland Trail as a Sonic Conquest.” The Journal of  American History 96 (2009): 19-43
  • Rachel St. John, Line in the Sand: The Desert Border Between the United States and Mexico, 1848-1934 (2011), p. 1-123.

Gender and Family

  • Johnny Faragher and Christine Stansell, “Women and Their Families on the Overland Trail to California and Oregon, 1842-1867,” Feminist Studies2:2/3 (1975), 150-166.
  • John Mack Faragher, Women and Men onthe Overland Trail (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979)
  • Lucy Jane Bledsoe, Adventuresome Women on the Oregon Trail: 1840-1867,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, Women on the Western Frontier (1984), pp. 22-29.
  • Glenda Riley, The Female Frontier: A Comparative View of Women on the Prairie and the Plains (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1988)
  • Kathleen Neils Conzen, “A Saga of Families,” in Clyde A. Milner II, Carol A. O’Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss, eds., The Oxford History of the American West(Oxford University Press, 1994), 315-57.
  • Linda S. Peavy, Pioneer Women: The Lives of Women on the Frontier
  • Linda S. Peavy and Ursula Smith,Womenin Waiting in the Westward Movement: Life on the Home Frontier(Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)
  • [*historical fiction:] Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose (New York: Penguin Books, 1971)
  • Miroslava Chávez-García, Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2004)[Chs. 4-6 / Part II focus on U.S. years]
  • Ann Patton Malone,Womenonthe Texas Frontier: A Cross-Cultural Perspective(El Paso, TX: Texas Western Press, 1983)
  • Joan M. Jensen, Calling This Place Home: Women on the Wisconsin Frontier, 1850-1925 (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2006)
  • Cathy Luchetti, Children of the West: Family Life on the Frontier (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2001)
  • Dorothy Wickenden,Nothing Daunted: The Unexpected Education of Two Society Girls in the West (New York: Scribner, 2011)
  • Glenda Riley,Women and Indians on the Frontier, 1825-1915 (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1984)
  • Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
  • Barbara Handy-Marchello,Womenof the Northern Plains: Gender and Settlement on the Homestead Frontier, 1870-1930(St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2005)
  • Sandra L. Myres, Westering Womenand the FrontierExperience, 1800-1915 (Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1982)
  • Cynthia Culver Prescott, Gender and Generation on the Far Western Frontier Tucson, (AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2007)

Western Race, Racism, Ethnicities, Integration and Immigration

  • Jon Gjerde, The Minds of the West: Ethnocultural Evolution in the Rural Middle West, 1830-1917 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).
  • Wilson, Lori Lee. The Joaquín Band: The History behind the Legend.Lincoln, NE: Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, 2011.
  • Quintard Taylor,InSearchof the RacialFrontier: AfricanAmericans in the American West, 1528-1990(New York: W.W. Norton, 1998)
  • Lapp, Rudolph M. Blacks in Gold Rush California. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
  • Wheeler, B. Gordon. Black California: The History of African Americans in the Golden State. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1993.
  • Anna Pegler-Gordon, In Sight of America: Photography and the Development of U.S. Immigration Policy (Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress, 2009)
  • Chen, Yong. Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: A Trans-Pacific Community.Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress, 1994)
  • Linda Frost, Never One Nation:  Freaks, Savages, and Whiteness in U.S. Popular Culture, 1850-1877 (Minneapolis:University of Minnesota Press, 2005) –but also note this perceptive review of its shortcomings
  • Sucheng Chan, et al., eds., Peoples of Color in the American West (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co., 1994)
  • Sucheng Chan, This Bitter-Sweet Soil: The Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986)
  • Alexander Saxton, The Indispensible Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California.
  • Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out:The Forgotten War against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007)
  • Nayan Shah, Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001)
  • Joshua Paddison, American Heathens: Religion, Race, and Reconstruction in California (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 2012)
  • Erika Lee, At America’s Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007)
  • Mary Ting Yi Lui, The Chinatown Trunk Mystery: Murder, Miscegenation, and Other Dangerous Encounters in Turn-of-the-Century New York City (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005)
  • Nell I. Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction.
  • Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999)
  • Lee, Erika. “Orientalisms in the Americas: A Hemispheric Approach to Asian American History.” Journal of Asian American Studies (2005)
  • Lee, Erika. “Enforcing the Borders: Chinese Exclusion along the U.S. Borders with Canada and Mexico, 1882–1924.”Journal of American History(2002) andAt America’s Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943(University of North Carolina Press, 2003)
  • Richard White, “Race Relations in the American West,” American Quarterly38 (1986), 396-416.
  • Sarah Deutsch, “Landscapes of Enclaves: Race Relations in the West, 1865-1990,” in Under an Open Sky, pp. 110-31.
  • Gary Anderson, Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime that Should Haunt America(2014)
  • Ari Kelman, Misplaced Massacre: Struggling Over the Memory of Sand Creek(2013)
  • Fred Hoxie, This Indian Country: American Indian Activists and the Place They Made(2013)
  • Elizabeth Fenn, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People(2014)
  • Stacey Smith, Freedom’s Frontier: California and the Struggle Over Unfree Labor, Emancipation, and Reconstruction (2013)

Primary Sources

  • Library of Congress sources on The Chinese in California, 1850-1925and related resources
  • Joanna L. Stratton, Pioneer Women: Voices from the Kansas Frontier (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981)
  • Mollie: The Journal of Mollie Dorsey Sanford in Nebraska and Colorado Territories, 1857-1866(Bison Books. Revised edition, 2003)
  • Caroline Kirkland, A New Home, Who’ll Follow
  • Sarah Raymond Herndon, Days on the Road: Crossing the Plains in 1865: The Diary of Sarah Raymond HerndonMary Hallock Foote, A Victorian Gentlewoman in the Far West: The Reminiscences of Mary Hallock Foote [the basis for Wallace Stegner’s beautiful Angle of Repose]
  • Christiane Fischer, Let Them Speak for Themselves: Women in the American West, 1849-1900
  • George Kulzer, “Personal Account: A Farmer in Stearns County,” in Kathleen Neils Conzen, Germans in Minnesota(Minnesota Historical Society, 2003), pp. 83-86
  • So Much to be Done: WomenSettlers onthe Mining and Ranching Frontier,Ruth B. Moynihan, Susan Armitage, and Christiane Fischer Dichamp (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1990)
  • Pacific Northwest Women, 1815-1925: Lives, Memories, and Writings, Jean M. Ward and Elaine A. Maveety (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 1995)
  • Mary Ann Hafen, Recollections of a Handcart Pioneerof 1860: A Woman’s Lifeonthe Mormon Frontier,Introduction by Donna Toland Smart (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 2004)
  • A Sweet, Separate Intimacy: WomenWriters of the American Frontier, 1800-1922,Susan Cummins Miller (Salt Lake City : University of Utah Press, 2000)
  • Estella Bowen Culp, Letters from Tully: A Woman’s Lifeonthe Dakota Frontier(Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 2007)
  • Walker D. Wyman,FrontierWoman; the lifeof a womanhomesteader onthe Dakota frontier. Retold from the original notes and letters of Grace Fairchild, a Wisconsin teacher, who went to South Dakota in 1898 (River Falls: University of Wisconsin-River Falls Press, 1972)
  • Texas Women On the Cattle Trails, Sara R. Massey (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, 2006)
  • William W. Fowler, Woman on the American frontier: A valuable and authentic history of the heroism, adventures, privations, captivities, trials, and noble lives and deaths of the “Pioneermothers of the republic”(Hartford, CT: S. S. Scranton & company, 1877)

Cartographies and Environmental Histories

  • D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History. Vols. 1-3
  • Richard White, Land Use, Environment, and Social Change
  • Donald Worster, An Unsettled Country.
  • Patricia Nelson Limerick, “Disorientation and Reorientation: The American Landscape Discovered from the West,” Journal of American History79, no. 3 (Dec., 1992): 1021-1049, reprinted in
  • Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West(2000), pp. 186-213
  • Wallace Stegner, Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West (New York: Penguin Books, 1992)
  • Frieda Knobloch, The Culture of Wilderness: Agriculture as Colonization in the American West
  • Lucy Eldersveld Murphy, A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Métis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000).
  • Karen R. Merrill, “Whose Home on the Range?” Western Historical Quarterly 27 (1996), 433-51
  • Robert A. Sauder, “State v. Society: Public Land Law and Mormon Settlement in the Sevier Valley, Utah,” Agricultural History70 (1996), 57-89
  • Richard White, “Animals and Enterprise,” in Milner et al., Oxford History of the American West(1994), 237-73
  • William Cronon, “Landscapes of Abundance and Scarcity,” in The Oxford History of the American West, pp. 603-37
  • Frieda Knoblauch, “Creating the Cowboy State: Culture and Underdevelopment in Wyoming Since 1867” Western Historical Quarterly32 (2001), 201-221
  • David Igler, Industrial Cowboys: Miller and Lux and the Transformation of the Far West, 1850-1920(University of California Press, 2005)

The Urban and Environmental West (and Midwest)

  • William Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (Norton, 1992)
  • Gray Brechin, Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Ruin (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999)
  • Marc Resiner,Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water (New York: Penguin Books, 1993)
  • Michael P. Conzen, Mapping Manifest Destiny: Chicago and the Great West(Chicago: Newberry Library, 2007)
  • Eugene P. Moehring, Urbanism and Empire in the Far West, 1840-1890 (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1994)
  • Paul Barrett, “Chicago and its Interpreters,” Journal of Urban History 20 (1994): 577-584
  • William Cronon, George Miles, Jay Gitlin, ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America’s Western Past (1992)
  • Thomas G. Andrews, Killing for Coal: America’s Deadliest Labor War

Primary Sources

Law and Order

  • Richard Slotkin, The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800-1890 (1985)
  • Masur, Louis P. Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and the Transformation of American Culture, 1776-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Mark M. Carroll, Homesteads Ungovernable: Families, Sex, Race and the Law in Frontier Texas(University of Texas Press, 2001)
  • McKanna, Clare Vernon. Race and Homicide in Nineteenth-Century California. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2002.
  • Richard Maxwell Brown, “Violence,” in Milner et al., Oxford History of the American West(1994), 393-425
  • Daniel Belgrad, “’Power’s Larger Meaning’: The Johnson County War as Political Violence in an Environmental Context,” Western Historical Quarterly33 (2002), 159-77
  • Randy McFerrin and Douglas Willis, “High Noon on the Western Range: A Property Rights Analysis of the Johnson County War,”Journal of Economic History 67 (2007), 69-92
  • Ross F. Collins, “Cattle Barons and Ink Slingers: How Cow Country Journalists Created a Great American Myth,” American Journalism24 (2007), 7-29
  • Mark R. Ellis, “Legal Culture and Community on the Great Plains: ‘State of Nebraska v. John Burley,’” Western Historical Quarterly36 (2005), 179-99

Western Mythology and Culture

  • Louis S. Warren, Buffalo Bill’s America; William Cody and the Wild West Show (Knopf, 2005)
  • Holliday, J. S.  The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience.
  • New York:  Simon and Schuster, 1981.
  • Starr, Kevin.  Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1973.
  • Perry, Claire. Pacific Arcadia: Images of California, 1600-1915. New York:
  • Oxford University Press, 1999.

Gender and Sexuality

  • Susan Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (2000)
  • Anne Hyde, Empires, Nations, and Families: A New History of the North American West,1800-1860
  • Margaret Jacobs, White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940
  • Susan Sleeper-Smith, Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001)
  • Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
  • Deena González, Refusing the Favor: The Spanish-Mexican Women of Santa Fe, 1820-1880 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • Ramón Gutiérrez, When Jesus Came, The Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991).
  • Pablo Mitchell, Coyote Nation: Sexuality, Race, and Conquest in Modernizing New Mexico, 1880-1920
  • Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
  • Susan Armitage and Elizabeth Jamison, eds., The Women’s West
  • Lillian Schlissel, et al., ed., Western Women: Their Land, Their Lives
  • Glenda Riley, Building and Breaking Families in the American West
  • Anne M. Butler, Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Mercy: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865-1890
  • Marion S. Goldman, Gold Diggers and Silver Miners: Prostitution and Social Life on the Comstock Lode
  • Robert Griswold, Family and Divorce in California, 1850-1890
  • Sarah Deutsch, No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class and Gender on an Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940


  • William Deverell, ed., A Companion to the American West (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2004)
  • Robert Hine and John Mack Faragher,The American West: A New Interpretive History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000)
  • Patricia Nelson Limerick, Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton, 1987)
  • Clyde Milner, Carol O’Connor, Martha Sandweiss, eds., The Oxford History of the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)
  • Quintard Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999)
  • Richard White, “It’s Your Misfortune and None of My Own”: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991)
  • Howard R. Lamar, ed., The New Encyclopedia of the American West (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998)

Civil War

  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom:  The Civil War Era.  New York : Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Ashworth and Foner essays in The Market Revolution in America:  Social, Political, and Religious Expressions, 1800-1880.  Edited by Melvyn Stokes and Stephen Conway.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
  • Blight, David W.  Beyond the Battlefield: Race, Memory, and the American Civil War. Amherst:  University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.
  • Maris Vinovskis, ed., Toward a Social History of the American Civil War (1990)
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (2008)
  • Edward L. Ayers, In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America, 1859-1863 (2003)
  • Edward L. Ayers, “Rethinking Slavery and Freedom,” The Historian 62, no. 1 (1999): 122-126
  • Edward L. Ayers, The Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities in the American Civil War – The Eve of War (2000)
  • Edward L. Ayers,What Caused the Civil War? Reflections on the South and Southern History (2005)
  • Winthrop Jordan, Tumult and Silence at Second Creek.
  • Reid Mitchell, The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home

Causes, Economics

  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican
  • Party Before the Civil War. New York, Oxford University Press, 1970.
  • Leonard L Richards, The Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1780-1860 (2000)
  • Davis, David Brion.  The Slave Power Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style. Baton
  • Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
  • Bruce Levine, Half Slave and Half Free (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992)
  • Potter, David M.  The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861.  Completed and edited by
  • Don E. Fehrenbacher.  New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
  • Holt, Michael.  Political Crisis of the 1850s.(1978)
  • Ford, Lacy.  Origins of Southern Radicalism:  The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1988.]
  • Ashworth, John.  Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic.  
  • Cambridge [England]:  Cambridge University Press, 1995. 2 Vols.
  • William W. Freehling, The Reintegration of American History: Slavery and the Civil War (1994)
  • John D. Majewski, A house dividing: economic development in Pennsylvania and Virginia before the Civil War (2000)
  • Susan-Mary Grant, North Over South: Northern Nationalism and American Identity in The Antebellum Era (2001)
  • Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850 – 1920
  • Bruce Levine, The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War(Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992)


  • James McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1997)
  • Earl Hess, Liberty, Virtue and Progress: Northerners and Their War for the Union (1988)
  • Randall Jimerson, The Private Civil War: Popular Thought during the Sectional Conflict (1988)
  • Reid Mitchell, Civil War Soldiers (1988)
  • Gerald Linderman, Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War (1987)
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South (Baton Rouge, LA: 1988)
  • Paul D. Escott, After Secession: Jefferson Davis and the Failure of Confederate Nationalism (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1992)
  • William W. Freehling, The South vs. the South: How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)
  • Richard E. Beringer, Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones, and William N. Still, Jr., Why the South Lost the Civil War (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1986)
  • Stephen V. Ash, Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 1860-1870: War and Peace in the Upper South(Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988; 2006)
  • James M. McPherson, “American Victory, American Defeat,” in Gabor S. Boritt, ed., Why the Confederacy Lost(New York: Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Gary W. Gallagher, The Confederate War(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997)

Social History, Everyday Life

  • Bell Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Solider of the Confederacy (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill, 1943)
  • Bell Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union(Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill, 1952)
  • Maris A. Vinovskis, “Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War? Some Preliminary Demographic Speculations,” Journal of American History76, no. 1 (June 1989): 34-58.
  • Maris A. Vinovskis, Toward a Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

The Homefront

  • Drew Gilpin Faust, “Civil War Home Front,” in Rally on the High Ground: The National Park Service Symposium on the Civil War (Fort Washington, PA: Eastern National, 2001)
  • Aaron Sheehan-Dean, “The Southern Home Front and the Problem of Synthesis: A Review Essay,” Georgia Historical Quarterly93:1 (Spring 2009).
  • Jacqueline Glass Campbell, When Sherman Marched North from the Sea: Resistance on the Confederate Home Front(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003)
  • Stephen Ash, When the Yankees Came Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861-1865(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995)

Class, Ethnicity, and Race

  • Iver Bernstein, The New York City Draft Riots
  • Joseph T. Glatthaar, Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers
  • David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’s Civil War
  • James M. McPherson, “Was Blood Thicker than Water? Ethnic and Civic Nationalism in the American Civil War,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 143, no. 1 (1999): 102-108
  • John David Smith, ed., Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002)
  • Christian G. Samito, Becoming American Under Fire: Irish American, African Americans and the Politics of Citizenship during the Civil War Era(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009)
  • Keith P. Wilson, Campfires of Freedom: The Camp Life of Black Soldiers during the CivilWar(Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2002)
  • Steven J. Ramold, Slaves, Sailors, Citizens: AfricanAmericans in the Union Navy (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002)
  • Michael D. Hitt, Charged With Treason: Ordeal of 400 Mill Workers During Military Operations in Roswell, Georgia, 1864-1865(Monroe, NY: Library Research Associates, Inc., 1992)
  • Mary Deborah Petite, The Women Will Howl: The Union Army Capture of Roswell and New Manchester, Georgia, and the Forced Relocation of Mill Workers (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, 2008)

International Dimensions

  • Amanda Foreman, A World On Fire: Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War(New York: Random House, 2011). 958 pp.
  • Matthew J. Clavin, Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. 248 pp.


  • Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War
  • Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, Battle Scars: Gender and Sexuality in the American Civil War(New York: Oxford University Press)
  • Elizabeth Leonard, Yankee Women: Gender Battles in the Civil War
  • Drew Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War
  • Amy Dru Stanley,“Conjugal Bonds and Wage Labor: Rights of Contract in the Age of Emancipation,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 75, No. 2 (Sep., 1988), pp. 471-500
  • LeeAnn Whites and Alecia P. Long, Occupied Women: Gender, Military Occupation, and the American Civil War(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009)
  • Judith Ann Giesberg, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition(Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000)
  • Mary Elizabeth Massey, Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1966)
  • Anne Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics, 1830-1930 (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1970)
  • Bell Wiley, Confederate Women (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975)


  • Berlin et al., Slaves No More
  • Roger Ransom and Richard Sutch, One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation
  • James M. McPherson, “Who Freed the Slaves?” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 139, no. 1 (1995): 1-10.
  • Eric Foner, “The Meaning of Freedom in the Age of Emancipation,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 81, No. 2 (Sep., 1994), pp. 435-460
  • Amy Dru Stanley, “Instead of Waiting for the Thirteenth Amendment: The War Power, Slave Marriage, and Inviolate Human Rights,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 115, No. 3 (June 2010), pp. 732-765

Military and the State: The Union

  • Steven J. Ramold, Baring the Iron Hand: Discipline in the Union Army (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009)
  • Mark Wilson, The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861-1865 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)
  • Clayton R. Newell and Charles R. Shrader,Of Duty Well and Faithfully Done: A History of the Regular Army in the Civil War(Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011)
  • Charles Royster, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans(New York: Knopf, 1991); Mark Grimsley, The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy Toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995);
  • Anne J. Bailey, War and Ruin: William T. Sherman and the Savannah Campaign (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2003)
  • Mark Grimsley, The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy Toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • Mark E. Neely. “Was the Civil War a Total War?” Civil War History 50: 4 (2004): 434-458.
  • David T. Gilchrist and W. David Lewis, eds.,Economic Change in the Civil War Era (Greenville, DE: Eleutherian-Mills- Hagley Foundation, 1965)

Military and the State: The Confederacy

  • Stephanie McCurry. Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South.Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010. 456 pp. $35.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-674-04589-7.
  • Harold Wilson, Confederate Industry: Manufacturers and Quartermasters in the Civil War (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002)
  • Mary A. DeCredico, Patriotism for Profit: Georgia’s Urban Entrepreneurs and the Confederate War Effort(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990) Richard D. Goff, Confederate Supply(Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1969)
  • Daniel E. Sutherland, ed., Guerrillas, Unionists, and Violence on the Confederate Home Front(Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1999)
  • Robert R. Mackey, The Uncivil War: Irregular Warfare in the Upper South, 1861-1865 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004)
  • Richard R. Duncan, Beleaguered Winchester: A Virginia Community at War, 1861-1865(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007)
  • Jacqueline Jones, Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War(New York: Knopf, 2008)


  • James M. McPherson, Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (1991)
  • Orville Vernon Burton,The Age of Lincoln (Hill and Wang, 2007)
  • Kate Masur, “‘A Rare Phenomenon of Philological Vegetation’: The Word ‘Contraband’ and the Meanings of Emancipation in the United States,” Journal of American History 93, no. 4 (March 2007), 1050-1084.

Material Culture

  • Joan E. Cashin, “Trophies of War: Material Culture in the Civil War Era,” Journal of the Civil War Era, Vol. 1, No. 3 (September 2011): 339-367.
  • Harold D. Langley, “From the Collection: Warren Opie’s Sailor’s Uniform at Winterthur,” Winterthur Portfoliovol. 38, no. 2/3 (Summer/Autumn 2003): 131-142.

Primary Sources

  • Eliza Frances Andrews, The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864-1865,
  • Jean V. Berlin (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997)
  • John Stevens Cabot Abbott, The History of the Civil War in America: comprising a full and impartial account of the origin and progress of the rebellion(G. Bill, 1863)


  • Foner, Eric.  Reconstruction: America’s unfinished revolution, 1863-1877. New York:  Harper & Row, 1988.
  • Leon Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery
  • Hahn, Steven.  A Nation under Our Feet:  Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration.  Harvard UniversityPress, 2004.
  • Stampp, Kenneth Milton.  The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877.  New York: Knopf, 1965.
  • Williamson, Joel.  The Crucible of Race:  Black/White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation.(1984)
  • David Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory
  • Harlan, Lewis R.  Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 1975.
  • Ayers, The Promise of the New South
  • Laura Edwards, Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction
  • Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow
  • Hunter, To ‘Joy My Freedom
  • Heather Cox Richardson, The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil WarNorth, 1865-1901 (2001)
  • Steven Hahn, “Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective,” American Historical Review95 (1990): 75-98
  • Rebecca Scott, Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after Slavery
  • Thavolia Glymph, Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of Plantation Households
  • Julie Saville, The Work of Reconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina, 1860-1870
  • Richard White, Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America,p. 39-277; 453-534


  • Allen Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction
  • Elaine Frantz Parsons, “Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan,” Journal of American History92, no. 3 (December 2005), 811-836.


  • Dunning, William. Reconstruction, Political and Economic, 1865-1877.(1907)
  • Du Bois, W. E. B.  Black Reconstruction:  An Essay Toward A History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in America, 1860-1880.(1935)

Regional Studies

  • Mark L. Bradley, Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina(Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009)

Redemption and Jim Crow

  • Woodward, C. Vann.  The Strange Career of Jim Crow.(1955; 2ndRev. ed., 1966)
  • ________.  The Burden of Southern History.  Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1960.
  • ________.  Origins of the New South, 1877-1913.  A History of the South, Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E. Merton Coulter, eds., Vol. IX.  Baton Rouge, LO: Louisiana State University Press, 1951.
  • Fredrickson, George M.  The Black Image in the White Mind:  The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914.  New York:  Harper & Row, 1971.  Chapters 6-11.
  • Kousser, J. Morgan.  TheShaping of Southern Politics:  Suffrage Restriction and the Shaping of the One-Party South, 1880-1910.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.
  • Edward Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction
  • Litwack, Leon F.  Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners In the Age of Jim Crow.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
  • Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long
  • Hunter, Tera.  To ‘Joy My Freedom:  Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labor after the Civil War.  Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1997.
  • Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow
  • Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow
  • Levering Lewis, David.  W.E.B. Dubois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919. Owl Books, 1994.
  • ________.  W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963.  New York:  Henry Holt & Company, 2000.
  • Neil McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow
  • C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow
  • Howard Rabinowitz, Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865-1890
  • Joel Williamson, A Rage for Order: Black-White Relations in the American South since Emancipation
  • Gerald David Jaynes, Branches Without Roots: Genesis of the Black Working Class in the American South, 1862-1882.
  • Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York : Pantheon Books, 1998)
  • W. Fitzhugh Brundage, The Southern Past (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008)


  • Pfeifer, Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947 (2006)
  • W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930
  • James Allen, Hilton Als, and Leon F. Litwack, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers, 2000) See also: <>

Primary Sources

  • Wright, Richard. Black Boy, A Record of Childhood and Youth.(1945)
  • Washington, Booker T. Up From Slavery:  An Autobiography.New York:  L. Burt Co., 1901.
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. (1903)
  • Dixon, Thomas.The Clansman:  An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan.(1905)

National Integration

  • Richard White, “Information, Markets, and Corruption: Transcontinental Railroads in the Gilded Age,” Journal of American History90 (2003), 19-43
  • Jeremy Vetter, “Science Along the Railroad: Expanding Field Work in the U.S. Central West,” Annals of Science61 (2004), 187-211
  • Gunther Peck, “The Nature of Labor: Fault Lines and Common Ground in Environmental and Labor History,” Environmental History11 (2006), 212-38
  • Carlos Schwantes, “Wage Earners and Wealth Makers,” in Milner et al., Oxford History of the American West(1994), 431-67

Primary Sources

Political History

  • Hofstadter, Richard.  The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. (1948)
  • Hartz, Louis.  The Liberal Tradition In America.  New York:  Harcourt, Brace & World, 1955.
  • Kettner, James H.  The Development of American Citizenship, 1608-1870. Chapel Hill:  Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University of North Carolina Press, 1978.
  • Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States
  • Altschuler, Glenn C., and Stuart M. Blumin.  Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century.  Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2000.
  • Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005)
  • Reviews of Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy, by Glenn Altschuler, Reviews in American History 34 (2006): 169-175; Daniel Feller, American Historical Review 111 (2006): 832-833; William G. Shade,HNet Reviews (August 2006); Harry L. Watson, The Historian 69 (2007): 129-130
  • Lawrence Frederick Kohl, The Politics of Individualism: Parties and the American Character in the Jacksonian Era (New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 1989)


  • Nancy Isenberg, Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America(1999)
  • Elizabeth R. Varon, We Mean to be Counted: White Women and Politics in Antebellum Virginia (1998)


  • John Milton Cooper, Jr., and Thomas J. Knock, eds., Jefferson, Lincoln, and Wilson: The American Dilemma of Race and Democracy (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2010)

Victorian Gender and Sexuality

  • John D’Emilio and Estelle Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America
  • Reginal Kunzel, Criminal Intimacies:Prison and the Uneven History of Modern American Sexuality(2008)
  • Sander Gilman, “Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature,” Critical Inquiry, Vol. 12, n. 1 (Autumn 1985): 202-242.
  • Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985)
  • Cynthia Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood
  • Anthony Rotundo, American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era (New York: Basic Books, 1994)
  • Mark C. Carnes and Clyde Griffen, eds., Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)
  • Michael Kimmel, Manhood in America: A Cultural History, 2d ed. (1995; New York: Free Press, 2005)
  • Jacqueline M. Moore, Cow Boys and Cattle Men: Class and Masculinities on the Texas Frontier, 1865-1900 (New York: New York University Press, 2010)
  • George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940
  • Kevin J. Mumford, “‘Lost Manhood’ Found: Male Sexual Impotence and Victorian Culture in the United States.”Journal of the History of Sexuality3 (1992).
  • Ann DuCille, “‘Othered’ Matters: Reconceptualizing Dominance and Difference in the History of Sexuality in America,” Journal of the History of Sexuality(1990), 102-130.


  • Nancy Cott, “Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology,” in Nancy Cott and Elizabeth Pleck, eds., A Heritage of Her Own, pp. 162-181.

Reproductive Control

  • Janet Farrell Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth-Century America
  • Richard W. Wertz and Dorothy C. Wertz, Lying In: A History of Childbirth in America
  • James Reed, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement in American Society
  • James C. Mohr, Abortion in America
  • Linda Gordon, Women’s Body, Women’s Right
  • David M. Kennedy, Birth Control in America
  • Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America

Illicit Sexuality and Sex Reformers

  • Timothy Gilfoyle, City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790-1920
  • Marilynn Wood Hill, Their Sisters’ Keepers: Prostitution in New York City, 1830-1870
  • Anne M. Butler, Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865-90
  • Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920.
  • Ruth M. Alexander, The “Girl Problem”: Female Sexual Delinquency in New York, 1900-1930.
  • Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
  • Regina Kunzel, “Pulp Fictions and Problem Girls: Reading and Rewriting Single Pregnancy in the Postwar United States,” American Historical Review 100 (1995), 1465-87.
  • Stephen Nissenbaum, Sex, Diet and Debility in Jacksonian America.
  • Jayme Solokow, Eros and Modernization: Sylvester Graham, Health Reform, and the Origins of Victorian Sexuality in America.
  • Ronald Walters, ed., Primers for Prudery: Sexual Advice to Victorian Americans.
  • Marjorie Garber, Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety (Routledge, 1997)

Same Sex Intimacy and Sexuality

  • Carroll Smith Rosenberg, “Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations Between Women in Nineteenth Century America,”Signs1 (1975), 1-29.
  • John D’Emilio, “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” in Snitnow, Stansell, and Thompson, eds., Powers of Desire, pp. 100-113.
  • Lillian Faderman, Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers.
  • Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline D. Davis, Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community.
  • Blanche Wiesen Cook, “The Historical Denial of Lesbianism,” Radical History Review20 (1979), 60-65.
  • Martin Duberman, About Time: Exploring the Gay Past.
  • Jonathan Katz, ed., Gay American History.
  • Jonathan Katz, Gay and Lesbian Almanac.
  • Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons, eds., Passion and Power: Sexuality in History, ch. 6, 12.
  • Rotundo, American Manhood, ch. 4.
  • Chauncey, Gay New York

Marriage and Divorce

  • Michael Gordon, “The Ideal Husband as Depicted in the Nineteenth Century Marriage Manual,” in Elizabeth H. Pleck and Joseph H. Pleck, eds, The American Man.
  • Robert Griswold, Family and Divorce in California, 1850-1890: Victorian Illusions and Everyday Realities.
  • William O’Neill, Divorce in the Progressive Era
  • Robert Griswold, Fatherhood in America.
  • John Demos, Past, Present, and Personal.
  • Joseph Kett, Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present.
  • Steven Mintz, A Prison of Expectations: The Family in Victorian Culture.
  • Paula Fass, Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America.
  • Miriam Formanek-Brunell, Made to Play House: Colls and the Commercialization of American Girlhood, 1830-1930
  • Elaine Tyler May, Great Expectations: Marriage and Divorce in Post-Victorian America

Turn-of-the-Century “Crisis” in Masculinity

  • Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917(1995)
  • Gail Bederman, “‘The Women Have Had Charge of the Church Work Long Enough’: The Men and Religion Forward Movement of 1911-1912 and the Masculinization of Middle-Class Protestantism,”American Quarterly41 (September 1989), 432-65.
  • Hoganson, Fighting for American Manhood
  • Joe L. Dubbert, “Progressivism and the Masculinity Crisis,” in Elizabeth H. Pleck and Joseph H. Pleck, eds.,The American Man
  • Peter Filene, Him/Her/Self: Sex Roles in Modern America
  • Jeffrey P. Hantover, “The Boy Scouts and the Validation of Masculinity,” in Elizabeth H. Pleck and Joseph H. Pleck, eds., The American Man.
  • David I. MacLeod, Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners.


  • Stephanie McCurry, “The Two Faces of Republicanism: Gender and Proslavery Politics in Antebellum South Carolina,”Journal of American History, 78:4 (March 1992), 1245-1264.
  • Patricia Cline Cohen, “Unregulated Youth: Masculinity and Murder in the 1830s City,” Radical Hist. Review  52 (Winter 1992).
  • Gail  Bederman, Manliness and Civilization : A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917 (1995). ch. 1, 2, and conclusion
  • Toby L. Ditz, “The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History,”
Gender & History, 16 :1 (April 2004) 1–35.

Primary Sources

  • Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life

Immigration and Ethnicity

  • Handlin, Oscar.  The Uprooted (1951)
  • Marcus Lee Hansen,The Atlantic Migration 1607-1860: A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1940)
  • John Bodnar,The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America (1985)
  • Roger Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life (New York:HarperCollins, 2002)
  • Matthew Frye Jacobson,Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917
  • Pegler-Gordon,In Sight of America: Photography and the Development of U.S. Immigration Policy
  • Samuel L. Bailey, Immigrants in the Land of Promise: Italians in Buenos Aires and New YorkCity, 1870-1914 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999)
  • Peter Conolly-Smith,Translating America: An Immigrant Press Visualizes American Popular Culture, 1895–1918 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2004)
  • Matthew Frye Jacobson, “More ‘Trans-,’ Less ‘National.’”  Journal of American Ethnic History25 (Summer 2006): 74-84.
  • Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (1998)
  • Thomas Kessner, Capital City: New York City and the Men behind America’s Rise to Economic Dominance, 1860-1900 (2003)
  • Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America
  • Natalia Molina, Fit to Be Citizens? Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1939 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006)
  • Mario T. Garcia, Desert Immigrants: The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880-1920.
  • David Reimers, Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America

European Emigration

  • Philip Taylor, The Distant Magnet: European Emigration to the U.S.A.
  • Jay Dolan, The Immigrant Church: New York’s Irish and German Catholics, 1815-1865
  • Kerby A. Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America
  • Hasia R. Diner, Erin’s Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the 19th Century (1983)
  • Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish became White (1995)


  • Jon Gjerde, Conflict and Community: A Care Study of the Immigrant Church in the United States
  • Beth S. Wenger, History Lessons: The Creation of American Jewish Heritage (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010)

Asian Emigration

  • Adam McKeown,Melancholy Order:Asian Migration and the Globalization of Borders (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008)
  • John Tchen, New York Before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001)
  • Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Distant Shore: A History of Asian Americans. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989)

Anti-Immigrant (Nativist) Movements

  • Higham, John.  Strangers in the Land; Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925. New Brunswick, N.J.:Rutgers University Press, 1955.
  • David Bennett, The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History
  • Ray Allen Billington, The Protestant Crusade
  • Alexander Saxton, The Indispensible Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California
  • Andrew Markus, Fear and Hatred: Purifying Australia and California, 1850-1901 (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1979)
  • Stuart Creighton Miller, The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese, 1785-1882 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969)
  • Charles Price, The Great White Walls are Built: Restrictive Immigration to North America and Australasia, 1836-1888 (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1997)
  • Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1939)
  • Leonard Dinnerstein, Uneasy at Home: Antisemitism and the American Jewish Experience
  • David Gerber, ed., Anti-Semitism in American History
  • Kenneth Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City
  • Grey Brechin, “The Wasp: Stinging Editorials and Political Cartoons,” Bancroftiana121 (2002),
  • Roger Olmsted, “The Chiense Must Go!” California Historical Quarterly 50, no. 3 (1971)

Social Mobility and Migration

  • Stephen Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians: Poverty and Progress in the American Metropolis, 1880-1970
  • Michael Katz, et al., The Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism
  • Thomas Kessner, The Golden Door: Italian and Jewish Immigrant Mobility in New York City, 1880-1915
  • Howard Chudacoff, “Success and Security: The Meaning of Social Mobility in America,” Reviews in American History10 (Dec. 1982), 101-112.
  • Edward Pessen., “Social Structure and Politics in American History,” American Historical Review(Dec. 1982).
  • James Henretta, “The Study of Social Mobility: Ideological Assumptions and Cultural Biases,” Labor History18 (Spring 1977), 164-178.
  • Joanne Meyerowitz, “Women and Migration: Autonomous Female Migrants to Chicago, 1880-1920,” Journal of Urban History13 (1987), 147-168.
  • Elizabeth Pleck, Black Migration and Poverty: Boston, 1865-1900
  • Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow
  • John Bodnar, Immigration and Industrialization: Ethnicity in an American Mill Town, 1870-1940
  • John Bodnar, et al., Lives of Their Own: Blacks, Italians, and Poles in Pittsburgh, 1900-1960
  • Clyde and Sally Griffen, Natives and Newcomers
  • Jon Gjerle, From Peasants to Farmers: The Migration from Balestrand, Norway, to the Upper Middle West
  • Elizabeth Ewen, Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars: Life and Culture on the Lower East Side, 1890-1925

Urban and Ethnic Families

  • Glenn, Daughters of the Shtetl
  • Tamara Hareven, Family Time, Industrial Time
  • Christopher Lasch, Haven in a Heartless World
  • Ewa Morawska, For Bread with Butter: Life-Worlds of East Central Europeans in Johnstown, Pennsylvania
  • Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, Family and Community: Italian Immigrants in Buffalo, 1880-1930

Poverty, Welfare, and the State

  • Michael B, Katz, In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America
  • Jacqueline Jones, The Dispossessed: America’s Underclasses from the Civil War to the Present
  • Michael B, Katz, Poverty and Policy in American History

Primary Sources

  • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives

History of Science and Medicine

  • Justine Murison,The Politics of Anxiety in Nineteenth-Century American Literature.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 215 pp.

Postwar Labor History

  • Ava Baron, “Gender and Labor History: Learning from the Past, Looking to
  • the Future,” in Baron, ed.,Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor (1991), 1-37.
  • Daniel T. Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979)


  • Carl Smith, Urban Disorder and the Shape of Disbelief

Working Class

  • Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements
  • Laurie, Artisans into Workers
  • Herbert G. Gutman, “Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America, 1815-1919,” American Historical Review 78, no. 3. (June 1973): 531-588; reprinted in Herbert G. Gutman, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America: Essays in American Working Class and Social History (1976)
  • David M. Gordon, et al., Segmented Work, Divided Workers
  • David Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America
  • Martha May, “Bread Before Roses: American Workingmen, Labor Unions and the Family Wage,” in Ruth Milkman, ed., Women, Work, and Protest: A Century of U.S. Women’s Labor History

The Economics of Farm Life / Populism

  • Charles Postel, The PopulistVision (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007)
  • Goodwyn, Lawrence.  The Populist Moment:  A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1978.
  • ________., Democratic Promise: The Populist Movement in America(1976)
  • Robert C. McMath, American Populism: A Social History
  • Steven Hahn, The Roots of Southern Populism
  • Hofstadter, Richard.  The Age of Reform:  From Bryan to F.D.R.(1955)
  • Jeffrey J. Crow, et al., eds.,Race, Class, and Politics in Southern History
  • Scott G, McNall, The Road to Rebellion: Class Formation and Kansas Populism, 1865-1900
  • James H. Stock, “Real Estate Mortgages, Foreclosures and Midwestern Agrarian Unrest, 1865-1920,” Journal of Economic History(March 1984), 89-106.
  • Norman Pollack, Humane Economy: Populism, Capitalism, and Democracy
  • James Turner, “Understanding the Populists”, Journal of American History67 (Sept. 1980), 354-373.
  • Robert McGuire, “Economic Causes of Late-Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Unrest,” Journal of Economic History61 (Dec. 1981)
  • C. Van Woodward, Tom Watson
  • Ted Ownby, Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South

Worker Control – Workers’ Lives

  • Roy Rosenzweig, Eight Hours for What We Will: Workers and Leisure in an Industrial City, 1870-1920
  • David Montgomery, Workers Control in America
  • Eric Arnesen, Waterfront Workers of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Politics, 1863-1923
  • Steven Ross, Workers on the Edge
  • Susan A. Glenn, Daughters of the Shtetl: Life & Labor in the Immigrant Generation

Women and Labor

  • Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States
  • Schwartz Cowan, More Work for Mother
  • Ava Baron, ed., Work Engendered

Labor Radicalism

  • Nick Salvatore, Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist
  • David Roediger and Franklin Rosemont, eds., The Haymarket Scrapbook
  • Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All
  • Joseph Conlin, ed., At the Point of Production
  • James R. Green, Grass-Roots Socialism: Radical Movements in the Southwest, 1895-1943
  • Candace Falk, Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman
  • Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism
  • John Laslett, Labor and the Left
  • John Laslett, ed., Failure of a Dream?: Essays in the History of American Socialism


  • Robert E. Weir, Knights Unhorsed: Internal Conflict in a Gilded Age Social Movement (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2000)
  • Shelton Stromquist, A Generation of Boomers: The Pattern of Railroad Labor Conflict in 19th Century America
  • Melvyn Dubofsky, Industrialism and the American Worker, 1865-1920
  • David Brody, Steelworkers in America

Primary Sources

  • Preamble to the Constitution of the Knights of Labor (1878)
  • Joseph R. Buchanan, The Story of a Labor Agitator(New York: Outlook Company, 1903)
  • Terence Vincent Powderly Papers, 1864-1937 (Glen Rock: Microfilming Corporation of America, 1975)
  • Labor: Its Rights and Wrongs: Statements and Comments by the Leading Men of Our Nation on the Labor Question of To-day. With Platforms of the Various Labor Organizations (Washington, D.C.: Labor Publishing Company, 1886)
  • Samuel Gompers defends the Right to Strike (1899)
  • Preamble of the IWW Constitution (1905)
  • Eugene V. Debs, “The Coming Union” (1905)

The Gilded Age

Economic and Social History, Progressivism

  • Alan Trachtenberg, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (Hill and Wang, 1982)
  • Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877‐1920 (Hill and Wang, 1966)
  • Michael McGerr, A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America (Oxford, 2003).
  • Amy Dru Stanley, “Beggars Can’t Be Choosers: Compulsion and Contract in Postbellum America,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 78, No. 4 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1265-1293.
  • Rebecca Edwards, New Spirits: Americans in the Gilded Age, 1865‐1905 (Oxford, 2006)
  • Nell Painter, Standing at Armageddon: A Grassroots History of the Progressive Era, 1877-1919 (Norton, 1987)
  • Eric Rauchway, Blessed Among Nations: How the World Made America(2007)
  • Alfred Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business
  • Sven Beckert, The Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850-1896 (2003)
  • Hays, Samuel P.  The Response to Industrialism, 1885-1914.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.
  • Olivier Zunz, Philanthropy in America: A History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011)
  • Walter Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America
  • Oliver Allen, The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall(New York: Da Capo Press, 1993)
  • Helen W. Farnsworth, “The Decline and Recovery of Wheat Prices in the “Nineties,” Wheat Studies of the Food Research Institute, vol. 10 (June/July 1934), p. 289-336.

Consumer Society – Work, Culture, and Gender

  • Neil Harris, Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)
  • Lawrence Glickman, Buying Power: A History of Consumer Activism in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009)
  • Jackson Lears, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America (New York: Basic Books, 1995)
  • Stephen R. Fox, The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators (New York: William Morrow, 1984)
  • Pamela Walker Laird, Advertising Progress: American Business and the Rise of Consumer Marketing (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998)
  • Daniel Pope, The Making of Modern Advertising (New York: Basic Books, 1993)
  • Kathy Peiss, Hope In A Jar: The Making of America’s Beauty Culture (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998)
  • Martha Banta, Imaging American Women: Idea and Ideals in Cultural History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989)
  • Bram Dijkstra, Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siecle Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988)
  • Harvey Green, The Light of the Home: An Intimate View of the Lives of Women in Victorian America (New York: Pantheon Books, 1983)
  • William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture
  • Susan Porter Benson, Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940
  • Elaine Abelson, When Ladies Go A-Thieving: Middle Class Shoplifters in the Victorian Department Store
  • Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York.
  • Kathy Peiss, “Commercial Leisure and the ‘Woman Question’,” in Richard Butsch, ed., For Fun and Profit: The Transformation of Leisure into Consumption, 105-117.
  • William R. Leach, “Transformations in the Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890-1925,” Journal of American History71 (Sept. 1984), 319-342.
  • Rosenzweig, Eight Hours For What We Will, ch. 7-8.
  • Andrew Heinze, Adapting to Abundance, esp., Introduction & ch. 2 & 8.
  • Susan Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market.
  • Roland Marchand, Advertising the American Dream

Popular Culture and Entertainment, Postbellum Visual Culture

  • Jonathan Crary, Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992)
  • Braudy, Leo. The Frenzy of Renown
  • Lary May, Screening Out the Past: The Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion Picture Industry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983)
  • Lawrence Levine, The Unpredictable Past: Explorations in American Cultural History
  • Jim Cullen, The Art of Democracy: A Concise History of Popular Culture in the United States
  • Lewis Erenberg, Steppin’ Out: New York Nightlife and the Transformation of American Culture, 1890-1930
  • Robert Sklar, Movie Made America
  • Robert W. Snyder, The Voice of the City: Vaudeville and Popular Culture in New York


  • Martha A. Sandweiss, Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception Across the Color Line (New York: Penguin, 2010)


  • Elliott Gorn, The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America
  • Benjamin Rader, Baseball: A History of America’s Game
  • Warren Goldstein and Elliott Gorn,A Brief History of American Sports
  • Steven A. Riess, City Games: The Evolution of American Urban Society and the Rise of Sports
  • Peter Levine, Ellis Island to Ebbets Field: Sport and the American Jewish Experience

Primary Sources

  • Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other.  New York:  Harper, 1883.
  • George, Henry. Progress and Poverty(1879)
  • Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House, With Autobiographical Notes. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910.
  • Beard, Charles and Mary. The Rise of American  New York: Macmillan, 1927.
  • Frederick Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management,39-48(1911)
  • Matthew Josephson, “Again the Robber Barons,” The Robber Barons 15 (1934)

Imperialism and Empire

  • Pratt, Julius W.  Expansionists of 1898. (Baltimore, 1936)
  • Williams, William Appleman.  The Tragedy of American Diplomacy.(1959)
  • LaFeber, Walter.  The New Empire:  An Interpretation of American Expansionism. (1963)
  • Brian Loveman, No Higher Law: American Foreign Policy and the Western Hemisphere since 1776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010)
  • Laura Wexler, Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism(2000)
  • David Silbey, A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War, 1899-1902
  • Kristin Hoganson, Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the panish-American and Philippinie-American Wars (1998)
  • Servando D., Jr. Halili, Iconography of the New Empire: Race and Gender Images and the American Colonization of the Philippines

The Forbidden Book

  • Ussama Makdisi, Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East (Cornell, 2008)
  • Laura Briggs,Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico
  • Amy Kaplan, “‘Left Alone with America’: The Absence of Empire in the Study of American Culture,” in Cultures of United States Imperialism, ed. Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease (Duke, 1993), 3‐21.
  • James T. Campbell, Matthew Guterl, and Robert G. Lee, eds., Race, Nation, and
  • Empire in American History (UNC, 2007), selections TBD.
  • Holger Droessler, Islands of Labor: Community and Resistance in Colonial Samoa, 1889-1919, Chapter 3 “Samoans in Unexpected Places” (Request copy)

[1]Hereafter, Market Revolution= Stokes and Conway, Market Revolution in America(Virginia) 081391650X