January 24, 2017. The Trail of Tears
- *A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears
- *Letter from Chief John Ross, “To the Senate and House of Representatives,” Red Clay Council Ground, Cherokee Nation, September 28, 1836.
- *President Andrew Jacksons Message to Congress On Indian Removal (1830)
January 26, 2017. The Mexican-American War
- *DeLay, Brian, Independent Indians and the U.S.-Mexican War, The American Historical Review, 112:1 (February 2007): 35-68
- Garcia, John. “Print Culture and Popular History in the Era of the U.S.-Mexican War.”Common-place.org. 17, no. 1 (). http://common-place.org/book/print-culture-and-popular-history-in-the-era-of-the-u-s-mexican-war/
In-Class Music Exercise (We will discuss these songs in class together. I am putting them here so you can watch them again later if you’d like).
The Mormon Tabernacle Singers “Come Come Ye Saints” (Written by William Clayton 1846, Recorded 2012).
The Staples Singers “This May Be The Last Time” (19th century spiritual, recorded 1958).
The Rolling Stones “The Last Time” Live, 1965 (Jagger/ Richards, 1965).
Weekly Assignment: Class Debate on Indian Policy & Removal
In class Tuesday 1/24/2017 we will be holding a policy debate on the Civilized Tribes. We will primarily be focused on the tensions between May 28, 1830 with the passage of the Indian Removal Act (a copy of it begins at the bottom of this page) and the forced removal which concluded by 1838-1840. While you do not need to write out what you will say before hand, you should be prepared to give an opening statement on your position, you should be prepared to rebuttal, and give a closing statement.
To begin, watch this documentary “Trail of Tears” from the PBS We Shall Remain series. It gives the best overview of the civilizing process, the factions within the Cherokee Nation, the legal and Supreme Court process of petitioning removal, motivations from the Democratic Party to support removal, and removal’s subsequent militarization. In the comments section on this page, write out some of your thoughts and responses to this documentary and how it portrays Indian Removal.
Team One: Chief John Ross and the pro-Cherokee unity faction. The Cherokee Nation under the leadership of Chief John Ross are against any land cession or relocation. To develop Chief John Ross’ arguments, please check out the following document: “Our Hearts are Sickened”: Letter from Chief John Ross (1836),
Team Two: Major & John Ridge: You will be defending the position of the Ridge Family and the Cherokee allied with them that entered into The Treaty of New Echota. This was a treaty made by a small contingent of Cherokees led by the Ridge Family against the wishes of the majority of the Cherokee Tribe and its elected leader, Chief John Ross. In the Treaty of New Echota, they surrendered lands in Georgia territory in present-day Oklahoma.
Team Three: You will be representing the viewpoint of President Andrew Jackson (elected in 1828) and the Democratic Party. To get a sense of his logic, If you’d like to read the entire address in context, here is a copy. You can also read a letter he wrote and published directly to the Cherokee before he was elected President, if you’d like to get a sense of his change over time.
Team Four: You will be representing white American missionaries and their understanding of Native Americans. You will primarily be collecting information from The Letters & Journals of Narcissa Whitman, 1836-1847, but can also use this letter from missionaries in Ohio about Cherokee religion.
Additional Resources for Indian Policy Debate
- Timeline of Cherokee Life, Governance, & Removal
- Timeline of major Cherokee milestones
- Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia Text
- The Cherokee Phoenix Claims Neutrality in Debate
Looking Ahead: “Three Troublesome Children,” The Wasp, December 1881 (San Francisco) “China Question,” “Mormon Question,” “Indian Question.”